• Sarah Khan
  • Emerald Lin
  • Jonathan S. Kirschner
Part of the Musculoskeletal Medicine book series (MUM)


Spasticity is a velocity-dependent increase in a muscle’s resistance to passive range of motion and is caused by the loss of supraspinal inhibition of the muscle stretch reflex. Spasticity can be both functionally useful and functionally detrimental. Therefore, how we manage and treat it can have a significant impact on the lives of patients with upper motor neuron disorders such as stroke, traumatic or anoxic brain injury, and spinal cord injury. Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary motor contractions resulting in abnormal posturing and twisting motions. Both spasticity and dystonia often result in major impairments with activities of daily living, ambulation, and independence while causing pain and discomfort. Severe cases of spasticity leave patients vulnerable to contractures and skin breakdown.


Botulinum Toxin Submandibular Gland Psoas Muscle Cervical Dystonia Botulinum Toxin Injection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Khan
    • 1
  • Emerald Lin
    • 2
  • Jonathan S. Kirschner
    • 3
  1. 1.Brain Injury Unit, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Hofstra Medical SchoolNorth Shore Long Island Jewish Glen Cove HospitalGlen CoveUSA
  2. 2.Kessler Institute for RehabilitationWest OrangeUSA
  3. 3.Interventional Spine and Sports Medicine Division, Department of Rehabilitation MedicineIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

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