Advertisement

Atrioventricular Septal Defects

  • Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
  • Luis Muñoz-Castellanos
  • Aloha Meave-Gonzalez
Chapter

Abstract

In normal heart, the real atrioventricular septum separates the morphological right atrium from the anatomic left ventricle. It has two portions; the anterosuperior is membranous and the posteroinferior is muscular. The latter is located between the mitral annulus and the tricuspid annulus. The peripheral atrioventricular junction is constituted by an extension of epicardial fat between the walls of atria and ventricles. In atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) which is due to deficiency of myocardial tissue at AV junction, the membranous septum is absent and there is also a deficiency in the perimembranous muscular tissue. AVSD has received numerous designations in the past including endocardial cushion defect, persistent embryonic atrioventricular canal, atrioventricular canal defect, and ostium primum atrial septal defect. Defect of the endocardial atrioventricular cushions is a nonspecific designation since it can include the absence of right atrioventricular connection and double inlet left ventricle.

Keywords

Septal Defect Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Ventricular Septum 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Espinola-Zavaleta N, Muñoz-Castellanos L, Kuri Nivon M, et al. Understanding atrioventricular septal defect: anatomoechocardiographic correlation. Cardiovasc Ultrasound. 2008;6:33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Baron MG, Wolf BS, Van Mierop LHS. Endocardial cushion defects. Specific diagnosis by angiography. Am J Cardiol. 1964;13:162–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blieden LC, Randall PA, Castaneda AR, et al. The “goose neck” of the endocardial cushion defect. Anatomical basis. Chest. 1974;65:13–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Edwards JE. The problem of mitral insufficiency caused by accessory chordae tendineae in persistent common atrioventricular canal. Mayo Clin Proc. 1960;35:299–306.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Girod D, Raghib G, Wang Y, et al. Angiocardiographic characteristics of persistent common atrioventricular canal. Radiology. 1965;85:442–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Somerville J. Clinical assessment of the function of the mitral valve in atrioventricular defects related to the anatomy. Am Heart J. 1966;71:701–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Emanuel RN, Anders JM, Moores EC, et al. Atrioventricular defects. A study of 92 families. Br Heart J. 1968;30:645–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Becker AE, Anderson RH. Atrioventricular septal defect: what’s in a name? Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1982;83:462–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Piero GP, Leon MG, Wilkinson JG, et al. Morphology and classification of atrioventricular defects. Am Heart J. 1979;42:621–32.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Piccoli GP, Gerlis LM, Wilkinson H, et al. Morphology and classification of complete atrioventricular defects. Br Heart J. 1979;42:621–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Penkoske AA, Neches WH, Anderson RH, et al. Further observations on the morphology of atrioventricular septal defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1985;90:611–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Van Mierop LSH, Alley RD, Kausel HW, et al. The anatomy and embryology of endocardial cushion defects. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 1962;43:71–83.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gutgesell HP, Huhta JC. Cardiac septation in atrioventricular canal defect. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1986;8: 1421–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Falcao S, Daliento L, Sy HO, et al. Cross sectional echocardiographic assessment of the extent of the atrial septum relative to the atrioventricular function in atrioventricular septal defect. Heart. 1999;81: 199–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mahle WT, Shivali GS, Anderson RH. Echo-morphological correlates in patients whit atrioventricular septal defects and common atrioventricular junction. Cardiol Young. 2006;3:43–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Silverman NH, Ho SY, Anderson RH, Smith A, et al. Atrioventricular septal defect with intact atrial and ventricular septal structures. Int J Cardiol. 1984;5:567–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ho SY, Russell G, Gerlis LM. Atrioventricular septal defect with intact septal structures in a 74-year old. Int J Cardiol. 1990;26:371–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tynan M, Becker AE, MaCartney FJ, et al. Nomenclature and classification in congenital heart disease. Br Heart J. 1979;41:544–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Mierop LHS. Pathology and pathogenesis of endocardial cushion defects. Surgical implication. In: Davis JC, editor. Second Henry Ford hospital international symposium on cardiac surgery. New York: Application Century Crofts; 1977. p. 201–7.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Levine JC, Geva T. Echocardiographic assessment of common atrioventricular canal. Prog Pediatr Cardiol. 1999;10:137–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Singh A, Romp RL, Nanda NC, et al. Usefulness of live/real time three-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography in the assessment of atrioventricular septal defects. Echocardiography. 2006;23:598–608.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hlavacek AM, Crawford FA, Chessa KS, et al. Real-time three-dimensional echocardiography is useful in the evaluation of patients with atrioventricular septal defects. Echocardiography. 2006;23:225–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Geva T, Sahn DJ, Powell AJ. Magnetic resonance imaging of congenital heart disease in adults. Progr Pediatr Cardiol. 2003;17:21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cook SC, Raman SV. Multidetector computed tomography in the adolescent and young adult with congenital heart disease. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2008;2:36–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Prakash A, Powel AJ, Geva T. Multimodality noninvasive imaging for assessment of congenital heart disease. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:112–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pahl E, Park SC, Anderson RH. Spontaneous closure of ventricular component of an atrioventricular septal defect. Am J Cardiol. 1987;60:1203–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Becker AE, Anderson RH. Pathology of congenital heart disease. London: Butterworth; 1981. p. 87–9.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ebels T, Ho SY, Anderson RH, et al. The surgical anatomy of the left ventricular outflow tract in atrioventricular septal defect. Ann Thorac Surg. 1986;41:483–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anderson RH, Ho SY, Falcao L, et al. The diagnostic features of atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction. Cardiol Young. 1998;8:33–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
    • 1
  • Luis Muñoz-Castellanos
    • 2
  • Aloha Meave-Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of EchocardiographyABC Medical Center, National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of EmbryologyNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Department of Magnetic Resonance ImagingNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance UnitNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations