Atrioventricular Septal Defects

  • Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
  • Luis Muñoz-Castellanos
  • Aloha Meave-Gonzalez


In normal heart, the real atrioventricular septum separates the morphological right atrium from the anatomic left ventricle. It has two portions; the anterosuperior is membranous and the posteroinferior is muscular. The latter is located between the mitral annulus and the tricuspid annulus. The peripheral atrioventricular junction is constituted by an extension of epicardial fat between the walls of atria and ventricles. In atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) which is due to deficiency of myocardial tissue at AV junction, the membranous septum is absent and there is also a deficiency in the perimembranous muscular tissue. AVSD has received numerous designations in the past including endocardial cushion defect, persistent embryonic atrioventricular canal, atrioventricular canal defect, and ostium primum atrial septal defect. Defect of the endocardial atrioventricular cushions is a nonspecific designation since it can include the absence of right atrioventricular connection and double inlet left ventricle.


Septal Defect Atrial Septal Defect Ventricular Septal Defect Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Ventricular Septum 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nilda Espinola-Zavaleta
    • 1
  • Luis Muñoz-Castellanos
    • 2
  • Aloha Meave-Gonzalez
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of EchocardiographyABC Medical Center, National Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of EmbryologyNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  3. 3.Department of Magnetic Resonance ImagingNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico
  4. 4.Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance UnitNational Institute of Cardiology Ignacio ChavezMexico CityMexico

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