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A Personalized Treatment for Lung Cancer: Molecular Pathways, Targeted Therapies, and Genomic Characterization

  • Thomas Hensing
  • Apoorva Chawla
  • Rishi Batra
  • Ravi Salgia
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 799)

Abstract

Lung cancer is a heterogeneous, complex, and challenging disease to treat. With the arrival of genotyping and genomic profiling, our simple binary division of lung cancer into non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is no longer acceptable. In the past decade and with the advent of personalized medicine, multiple advances have been made in understanding the underlying biology and molecular mechanisms of lung cancer. Lung cancer is no longer considered a single disease entity and is now being subdivided into molecular subtypes with dedicated targeted and chemotherapeutic strategies. The concept of using information from a patient’s tumor to make therapeutic and treatment decisions has revolutionized the landscape for cancer care and research in general.

Management of non-small-cell lung cancer, in particular, has seen several of these advances, with the understanding of activating mutations in EGFR, fusion genes involving ALK, rearrangements in ROS-1, and ongoing research in targeted therapies for K-RAS and MET. The next era of personalized treatment for lung cancer will involve a comprehensive genomic characterization of adenocarcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma, and small-cell carcinoma into various subtypes. Future directions will involve incorporation of molecular characteristics and next generation sequencing into screening strategies to improve early detection, while also having applications for joint treatment decision making in the clinics with patients and practitioners. Personalization of therapy will involve close collaboration between the laboratory and the clinic. Given the heterogeneity and complexity of lung cancer treatment with respect to histology, tumor stage, and genomic characterization, mind mapping has been developed as one of many tools which can assist physicians in this era of personalized medicine. We attempt to utilize the above tool throughout this chapter, while reviewing lung cancer epidemiology, lung cancer treatment, and the genomic characterization of lung cancer.

Keywords

Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Hepatocyte Growth Factor Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase National Comprehensive Cancer Network 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

ALK

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase

ASCO

American Society of Clinical Oncology

CI

Confidence interval

c-MET

N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitroso-guanidine (MNNG) HOS transforming gene

CT

Computed tomography

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

EML4

Echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4

EMT

Epithelial to mesenchymal transition

ERCC1

Excision repair cross-complementation group 1

EZH2

Enhancer of zeste homolog 2

FDA

Food and Drug Administration

FISH

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

GDP

Guanosine diphosphate

GTP

Guanosine triphosphate

HDAC

Histone deacetylase

HGF/SF

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor

HGFR

Hepatocyte growth factor receptor

HR

Hazard ratio

HSP-90

Heat shock protein-90

IGFR1

Insulin-like growth factor receptor 1

IHC

Immunohistochemistry

IPASS

Iressa Pan-Asia Study

LDCT

Low-dose computed tomography

MEK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase

MTD

Maximum tolerated dose

mTOR

Mammalian target of rapamycin

NCCN

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

NGS

Next generation sequencing

NSCLC

Non-small-cell lung cancer

OR

Odds ratio

OS

Overall survival

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction

PET

Positron emission tomography

PFS

Progression-free survival

PI3K

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase

ROS-1

Reactive oxygen species-1

RT

Radiation therapy

RTK

Receptor tyrosine kinase

RTOG

Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

SCLC

Small-cell lung cancer

Siah 2

Seven in absentia homolog 2

TKI

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

TP63

Tumor protein 63

TS

Thymidylate synthase

TTF-1

Thyroid transcription factor

VATS

Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Hensing
    • 1
    • 2
  • Apoorva Chawla
    • 2
  • Rishi Batra
    • 3
  • Ravi Salgia
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/OncologyNorthShore University Health System, Kellogg Cancer CenterEvanstonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology/OncologyUniversity of ChicagoChicagoUSA
  3. 3.987400 Nebraska Medical CenterUniversity of Nebraska Medical CenterOmahaUSA

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