CNS Barriers in Neurotrauma

  • Adam Chodobski
  • Brian J. Zink
  • Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska
Chapter
Part of the Springer Series in Translational Stroke Research book series (SSTSR, volume 5)

Abstract

Despite significant advances in designing neuroprotective therapies, multiple clinical trials in head trauma and spinal cord injury have produced mixed results. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) barriers may improve clinical translation of therapies for injury of the CNS. The blood–brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier are formed by specialized CNS endothelial cells. These barriers play a fundamental role in restricting the entry of blood-borne factors into the CNS. However, they also function as the gateway for the delivery of neuroprotective drugs. Neurotrauma changes the properties of CNS barriers, which may significantly affect the efficacy of neuroprotective therapies. The endothelial barriers of the CNS together with the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, which is predominantly formed by the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus, also restrict the influx of circulating leukocytes into the CNS. Dysfunction of these barriers resulting from injury plays a key role in the initiation and progression of inflammation that accompanies neurotrauma.

Keywords

Permeability Migration Ischemia Albumin Luminal 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam Chodobski
    • 1
  • Brian J. Zink
    • 2
  • Joanna Szmydynger-Chodobska
    • 2
  1. 1.Neurotrauma and Brain Barriers Research Laboratory, Department of Emergency MedicineAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Emergency Medicine, Neurotrauma and Brain Barriers Research LaboratoryAlpert Medical School of Brown UniversityProvidenceUSA

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