Advertisement

Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: Clinical Setting and Ultrasound Findings

Chapter

Abstract

Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) are tumors that arise from the non-germ cells and non-epithelial cells that surround the oocytes, including the cells that produce ovarian hormones. These tumors show proteiform ultrasonographic patterns and usually they appear as solid tumor with color score 3–4.

Keywords

Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors Granulosa cell tumor Theca cell tumor Sertoli cell tumor Leydig cell tumor Imaging Ultrasound 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank my friends and colleagues from the IOTA group for helping me to find new interesting images, especially Luca Savelli, Antonia C. Testa, Artur Czekierdowski, Stefano Guerriero, Jeroen Kaijser, and Dirk Timmerman.

References

  1. 1.
    Quirk JT, Natarajan N. Ovarian cancer incidence in the United States, 1992–1999. Gynecol Oncol. 2005;97:519–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Varras M, Vasilakaki T, Skafida E, Akrivis C. Clinical, ultrasonographic, computed tomography and histopathological manifestations of ovarian steroid cell tumour, not otherwise specified: our experience of a rare case with female virilization and review of the literature. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2011;27:412–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Busquets M, Gonzalez-Bosquet E, Muchart J, Rovira C, Laïlla JM. Granulosa cell tumor and endometrial cancer: a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2010;31:575–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kurman RJ, Ellenson LH, Ronnett BM, editors. Blaustein’s pathology of the female genital tract. 6th ed. New York: Springer; 2011.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Demidov V, Lipatenkova J, Vokhareva O, Van Holsbeke C, Timmerman D, Valentin L. Imaging of gynecological disease (2): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of Sertoli cell tumors, Sertoli–Leydig cell tumors and Leydig cell tumors. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;31:85–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Van Holsbeke C, Domali E, Holland TK, Achten R, Testa AC, Valentin L, Jurkovic D, Moerman P, Timmerman D. Imaging of gynecological disease (3): clinical and ultrasound characteristics of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2008;31:450–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Timmerman D, Valentin L, Bourne TH, et al. Terms, definitions and measurements to describe the ultrasonographic features of adnexal tumors: a consensus opinion from the international ovarian tumor analysis (IOTA) group. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2000;16:500–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scully RE. Tumors of the ovary and mal developed gonads. Atlas of tumorpathology, series 2 fascicles 16. Washington, D.C.: Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; 1979. p. 152–73.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zaloudek C. The ovary. In: Gompel C, Silverberg SG, editors. Pathology in gynecology and obstetrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott; 1994. p. 313–413.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen DJ. Ovary and adnexa. In: Thurmond AS, Jones MK, Cohen DJ, editors. Gynecologic, obstetric and breast radiology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science; 1996. p. 255–322.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Young RH, Dickersin GR, Scully RE. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary: a clinicopathological analysis of 125 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1984;8:575–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Malmström H, Hogberg T, Risberg B, et al. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: prognostic factors and outcome. Gynecol Oncol. 1994;52:50–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Willemsen W, Kruitwagen R, Bastiaans B, Hanselaar T, Rolland R. Ovarian stimulation and granulosa-cell tumour. Lancet. 1993;341:986–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Scully RE. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor. Pediatr Pathol. 1988;8:423–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Novak E, Kutchmeshgi J, Mupas R, Woodruff J. Feminizing gonadal stromal tumors. Analysis of granulosa-theca cell tumors of ovarian tumor registry. Obstet Gynecol. 1971;38:701–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vassal G, Flamant F, Cailland JM, et al. Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary in children : a clinical study of 15 cases. J Clin Oncol. 1988;6:990–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fox H, Agrawal K, Langley FA. A clinicopathological study of 92 cases of granulosa cell tumor of the ovary with special reference to the factors influencing prognosis. Cancer. 1975;35:231–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Evans AT, Gaffey TA, Malkasian GD, et al. Clinicopathological review of 118 granulosa and 82 theca cell tumors. Obstet Gynecol. 1980;55:231–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Savage P, Constenla D, Fisher C, Shepherd JH, Barton DP, Blake P, et al. Granulosa cell tumors of the ovary: demographics, survival and the management of advanced disease. Clin Oncol. 1998;10:242–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Björkholm E, Silfversward C. Prognostic factors in granulosa cell tumors. Gynecol Oncol. 1981;11:261–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ohel G, Kaneti H, Schenker JG. Granulosa cell tumors in Israel: a study of 172 cases. Gynecol Oncol. 1983;15:278–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Oliva E, Alvarez T, Young RH. Sertoli cell tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 54 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2005;29:143–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hayes M, Scully R. Stromal luteoma of the ovary: a clinicopathological analysis of 25 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987;6:313–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyZiekenhuis Oost-LimburgGenkBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyUniversity Hospitals LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations