The diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is most commonly made after the discovery of elevated serum calcium done during routine lab testing. This clinical entity has a wide variety of clinical manifestations. The progressive bony demineralization can lead to bone pain, osteoporosis, and resultant fractures. The kidneys are affected on a tubular level and can manifest nephrolithiasis. The renal changes may be helped to some degree by surgical treatment of the underlying parathyroid pathology, but some effects on the kidney may not be reversible. Elevated serum calcium levels can affect muscle function leading to constipation, cardiac arrhythmias in severe cases, and skeletal muscle cramping. There are numerous subjective symptoms that have been attributed to elevation in calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. These include memory loss, concentration problems, mood swings, and depression.
KeywordsParathyroid Gland Thyroid Tissue Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Carcinoma Parathyroid Tissue
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