Parathyroid Gland

  • Qihui “Jim” ZhaiEmail author
  • John Casler
  • Nidhi Gupta
  • Keith Wilson
  • David Steward
Part of the Frozen Section Library book series (FROZEN, volume 12)


The diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism is most commonly made after the discovery of elevated serum calcium done during routine lab testing. This clinical entity has a wide variety of clinical manifestations. The progressive bony demineralization can lead to bone pain, osteoporosis, and resultant fractures. The kidneys are affected on a tubular level and can manifest nephrolithiasis. The renal changes may be helped to some degree by surgical treatment of the underlying parathyroid pathology, but some effects on the kidney may not be reversible. Elevated serum calcium levels can affect muscle function leading to constipation, cardiac arrhythmias in severe cases, and skeletal muscle cramping. There are numerous subjective symptoms that have been attributed to elevation in calcium and parathyroid hormone levels. These include memory loss, concentration problems, mood swings, and depression.


Parathyroid Gland Thyroid Tissue Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Carcinoma Parathyroid Tissue 
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Recommended Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Qihui “Jim” Zhai
    • 1
    Email author
  • John Casler
    • 2
  • Nidhi Gupta
    • 3
  • Keith Wilson
    • 4
  • David Steward
    • 5
  1. 1.Laboratory Medicine and PathologyMayo Clinic FloridaJacksonvilleUSA
  2. 2.Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryMayo Clinic FloridaJacksonvilleUSA
  3. 3.Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryJacobi Medical CenterBronxUSA
  4. 4.Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  5. 5.Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of Cincinnati Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA

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