Extrahepatic Biliary Tract

  • Lee J. Skandalakis
  • John E. Skandalakis


The extrahepatic biliary tract includes the right, left, and common hepatic ducts; cystic duct; common bile duct; hepatocystic triangle; and the gallbladder. Anomalous hepatic ducts can be a surgically significant source of bile leakage.

Detailed step-by-step technique is presented for operative cholangiogram, common bile duct exploration, cholecystectomy, sphincteroplasty, choledochoduodenostomy, choledochocystectomy, and laparoscopic cholecystectomy.


Bile Duct Common Bile Duct Hepatic Artery Cystic Duct Hepatic Duct 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee J. Skandalakis
    • 1
  • John E. Skandalakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Centers for Surgical Anatomy and TechniqueEmory University School of Medicine Piedmont HospitalAtlantaUSA

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