Modeling a Crowd of Groups: Multidisciplinary and Methodological Challenges

  • Stefania Bandini
  • Giuseppe Vizzari
Part of the The International Series in Video Computing book series (VICO, volume 11)


The main aim of the chapter is to introduce a recent and current trend of research in the modeling, simulation and visual analysis of crowds: the study of the impact of groups on the overall crowd dynamics, and its implications of the aforementioned research activities as well as their outcomes. In most situations, in fact, a crowd of pedestrians is more than a simple set of individuals, each interpreting the presence of the others in a uniform way, trying to preserve a certain distance from the nearest person. A crowd is rather a composite assembly of individuals, some of which are bound by different types of ties, not only representing the presence of other pedestrians as a repulsive force, influencing their attitude towards the movement in the environment. Current models for the simulation of crowds of pedestrians have just started to analyze this phenomenon, and we still lack a complete understanding of the implications of not considering it, either in a real simulation project supporting decision making activities of designers or planners, or in the analysis and automatic extraction of information, for instance from video footage of events or crowded environments.


Cellular Automaton Total Travel Time Space Utilization Crowd Behavior Fundamental Diagram 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This work is a result of the Crystal Project, funded by the Center of Research Excellence in Hajj and Omrah (Hajjcore), Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Our acknowledgement for the common work in the project and for fruitful discussions goes to Katsuhiro Nishinari (RCAST – Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Japan), our valuable partner within the Crystals Project. We also thank Ugo Fabietti (CREAM – University of Milano-Bicocca) for his contribution from the area of Anthropology.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, Systems and Communication, Complex Systems and Artificial Intelligence (CSAI) Research CenterUniversity of Milan – BicoccaMilanoItaly

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