Flow, Speed, Density, and Their Relationships

  • Lily Elefteriadou
Chapter
Part of the Springer Optimization and Its Applications book series (SOIA, volume 84)

Abstract

Flow, speed, and density are the three primary characteristics of traffic and are used to describe various aspects of operations of a highway facility. When describing and assessing traffic operations, we are often concerned with the movement of a group of vehicles, or the traffic stream as a whole, rather than the movement of each vehicle. In those cases, it is more convenient to describe traffic operations in terms of macroscopic measures of traffic.

Keywords

Microwave Transportation Radar 

References

  1. 1.
    Transportation Research Board, National Academies (2010) Highway Capacity Manual, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mendenhall W, Wackerly DD, Scheaffer RL (1990) Mathematical statistics with applications, 4th edn. PWS-KENT, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    FHWA traffic detector handbook, 3rd edn, Publication no. FHWA-HRT-06-108, Oct 2006.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gerlough DL, Huber MJ (1975) Traffic flow theory: a monograph, TRB special report 165. National Research Council, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Daganzo CF (1997) Fundamentals of transportation and traffic operations. Pergamon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Edie LC (1963) Discussion of traffic stream measurements and definitions. In: Almond J (ed) Proceedings of the second international symposium on the theory of traffic flow, OECD, Paris, pp 139–154Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Greenshields B (1935) A study of Traffic Capacity, Highway Research Board. In: Proceedings of the annual meeting of the Highway Research Board, vol 14, pp 448–477Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greenberg H (1959) An analysis of traffic flow. Oper Res 7:78–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Underwood RT (1961) Speed, volume, and density relationships: quality and theory of traffic flow. Yale Bureau of Highway Traffic, New Haven, Connecticut, pp 141–188Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pipes LA (1967) Car following models and the fundamental diagram of road traffic. Transp Res 1:21–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Van Aerde M (1995) Single regime speed-flow-density relationship for congested and uncongested highways. Presented at the 74th TRB annual conference, Paper no. 950802, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    May AD (1990) Traffic flow fundamentals. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roess RP, Prassas ES, McShane WR (2011) Traffic engineering, 4th edn. Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gazis DC, Herman R, Potts RB (1959) Car-following theory of steady state flow. Oper Res 7(4):499–505MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Blue VJ, Adler JL (2001) Cellular automata microsimulation for modeling bi-directional pedestrian walkways. Transp Res Part B Methodol 35(3):293–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Helbing D, Molnár P (1995) Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Phys Rev E 51:4282–4286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fellendorf M, Schönauer R, Huang W (2012) Social force based vehicle model for two-dimensional spaces. Presented at the transportation research boards 91st annual meeting, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lily Elefteriadou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Civil and Coastal EngineeringUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations