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Neuromodulators: Contemporary Indications and Techniques in the Upper and Midface

Abstract

Early use of Botulinum toxin can be credited to ophthalmologist Dr. Allen Scott who communicated to the senior author and other in the late 1980s and early 1990s his observations of wrinkle effacement when treating blepharospasm. These observations led to early reports of Botulinum toxins employed to target specifically hyperfunctional frown lines. The great success of this molecule in aesthetic applications can thus be credited to the innovative thinking and initiative of clinicians with interest in advancing clinical care in contrast to the more common pharmaceutical-based, profit-motivated development of drugs and devices.

Keywords

Botulinum Toxin Botulinum Neurotoxin Orbicularis Oculus Frontalis Muscle Corrugator Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Supplementary material

Video 2.1

(M4V 4913 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Maas ClinicUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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