Regional Anesthesia

Chapter

Abstract

The use of regional anesthesia for head and neck, and more specifically, maxillofacial procedures has a long history in anesthesiology. Indeed, the introduction of local anesthetics such as cocaine and procaine revolutionized much of these procedures as early as the late 1800s, when Koller began using cocaine for procedures. Today, a working knowledge of the pharmacology of local anesthetics and of head and neck anatomy is all that one needs to safely and effectively utilize regional anesthetic techniques for intraoperative maxillofacial surgery and for acute postoperative pain management strategies.

Keywords

Amide Migraine Cocaine Epinephrine Fentanyl 

Bibliography

  1. Akinosi JO. A new approach to the mandibular nerve block. Br J Oral Surg. 1977;15:83–7.Google Scholar
  2. ASRA – Publications – Consensus Statements – Practice Advisories – Local Anesthetic Systemic Toxicity. 2010. At http://www.asra.com/publications-local-anesthetic-systemic-toxicity-2010.php.
  3. Becker DE, Reed KL. Local anesthetics: review of pharmacological considerations. Anesth Prog. 2012;59:90–101; quiz 102–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Chan BJ, Koushan K, Liszauer A, Martin J. Iatrogenic globe penetration in a case of infraorbital nerve block. Can J Ophthalmol. 2011;46:290–1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cho D-Y, Drover DR, Nekhendzy V, Butwick AJ, Collins J, Hwang PH. The effectiveness of preemptive sphenopalatine ganglion block on postoperative pain and functional outcomes after functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2011;1:212–8.Google Scholar
  6. de Sousa AA, Filho MAD, Faglione W, Carvalho GTC. Superficial vs combined cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy: a prospective, randomized study. Surg Neurol. 2005;63 Suppl 1:S22–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. DeMaria S, Govindaraj S, Chinosorvatana N, Kang S, Levine AI. Bilateral sphenopalatine ganglion blockade improves postoperative analgesia after endoscopic sinus surgery. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26:e23–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Donlon WC, Truta MP, Eversole LR. A modified auriculotemporal nerve block for regional anesthesia of the temporomandibular joint. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1984;42:544–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Goerig M, Bacon D, van Zundert A. Carl Koller, cocaine, and local anesthesia: some less known and forgotten facts. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2012;37:318–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gow-Gates GA. Mandibular anaesthesia. Aust Dent J. 1978;23:117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gow-Gates GA. The Gow-Gates mandibular block: regional anatomy and analgesia. Aust Endod J. 1998;24:18–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Haas DA. Alternative mandibular nerve block techniques: a review of the Gow-Gates and Akinosi-Vazirani closed-mouth mandibular nerve block techniques. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142(Suppl):8S–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kanakaraj M, Shanmugasundaram N, Chandramohan M, Kannan R, Perumal SM, Nagendran J. Regional anesthesia in faciomaxillary and oral surgery. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2012;4:S264–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Kodama Y, Seo K, Tanaka R, Arashiyama T, Ajima H, Takagi R. Placement of mandibular nerve block using computed tomography to locate the foramen ovale in a patient with severe dislocation after segmental mandiblectomy. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2009;47:407–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Van Lancker P, Abeloos JV, De Clercq CA, Mommaerts MY. The effect of mandibular nerve block on opioid consumption, nausea and vomiting in bilateral mandibular osteotomies. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 2003;54:223–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Levin M. Nerve blocks in the treatment of headache. Neurotherapeutics. 2010;7:197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Manavi MV. Lipid infusion as a treatment for local anesthetic toxicity: a literature review. AANA J. 2010;78:69–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Masters RD, Castresana EJ, Castresana MR. Superficial and deep cervical plexus block: technical considerations. AANA J. 1995;63:235–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. McAdam D, Muro K, Suresh S. The use of infraorbital nerve block for postoperative pain control after transsphenoidal hypophysectomy. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2005;30:572–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pandit JJ, Satya-Krishna R, Gration P. Superficial or deep cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review of complications. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:159–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pipolo C, Bussone G, Leone M, Lozza P, Felisati G. Sphenopalatine endoscopic ganglion block in cluster headache: a reevaluation of the procedure after 5 years. Neurol Sci. 2010;31 Suppl 1:S197–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Salam GA. Regional anesthesia for office procedures: part I. Head and neck surgeries. Am Fam Physician. 2004;69:585–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sved AM, Wong JD, Donkor P, Horan J, Rix L, Curtin J, Vickers R. Complications associated with maxillary nerve block anaesthesia via the greater palatine canal. Aust Dent J. 1992;37:340–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Liver Transplantation, Department of AnesthesiologyIcahn School of Medicine at Mount SinaiNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations