Myopia: Ocular and Systemic Disease

  • Quan V. HoangEmail author
  • Jamie A. Leong
  • Roberto Gallego-Pinazo


The study of high axial myopia in the setting of antecedent, concurrent, or subsequent ocular disorders, systemic diseases, hereditary syndromes, and systemic drug use may contribute to our understanding of the pathogenesis of myopia and even set the occasion for the development of treatment. Although early recognition of mild myopic changes that commonly arise with certain ocular and systemic factors may limit the burden of vision loss with simple refractive correction, the recognition of high and pathologic axial myopia is important since there is a risk of permanent vision loss from vision-threatening sequelae. Therefore, the study of cases of high axial myopia, and specifically those cases in which there may be a causal relationship, is of particular interest. Additionally, recognition of the tendency of some syndromes to be associated with high myopia heightens the clinical suspicion for detection of severe refractive errors in patients who may be preverbal or unable to effectively communicate. Clinical studies and basic scientific discoveries oftentimes mirror and motivate each other. In this chapter, we detail clinical observations and studies that have proven or may in the future prove themselves relevant to current thoughts on emmetropization and animal models of myopia discussed more thoroughly elsewhere in this book.


Ciliary Body High Myopia Anterior Chamber Depth Stickler Syndrome Permanent Vision Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quan V. Hoang
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Jamie A. Leong
    • 1
  • Roberto Gallego-Pinazo
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyEdward S. Harkness Eye Institute, Columbia University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Vitreous Retina Macula Consultants of New YorkNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.LuEsther T. Mertz Retinal Research Center, Manhattan Eye, Ear, and Throat HospitalNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Unit of Macular Diseases, Department of OphthalmologyUniversity and Polytechnic Hospital La FeValenciaSpain

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