Distribution Chains and Market Relationships

  • Letizia Paoli
  • Alessandro Donati
Chapter

Abstract

In the fourth chapter, we first analyze the distribution chains composed by legal and illegal suppliers of doping products in Italy, noting that the length of the chain and the legal status of the transactions vary depending on the products exchanged. Given the embeddedness of many supply-side activities in legitimate professions and exchanges, we then argue that the relationships the suppliers develop with each and their customers can often be subsumed under the broad category of white-collar crime. Tout court illegal enterprises also emerge, though, particularly among the suppliers dealing with substances that are illegally manufactured for doping purposes. Although the chapters only analyze empirical data on Italy, the findings here presented can be considered illustrative of the market for doping products in other countries, which have yet not been studied empirically. Future projects are called to ascertain empirically similarities and differences between the Italian market and what remains unexplored elsewhere.

Keywords

Income Marketing Cocaine Caffeine Rosen 

References

  1. Arlacchi, P., & Lewis, R. (1990). Imprenditorialità illecita e droga. Il mercato dell’eroina a Verona. Il Mulino: Bologna.Google Scholar
  2. Bouchard, M., & Morselli, C. (2013). Opportunistic structures of organized crime. In L. Paoli (Ed.), Oxford handbook of organized crime. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Braithwaite, J. (1985). White collar crime. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Braithwaite, J. (1993). The transnational regulation of the pharmaceutical industry. Annals of the American Society of Political Sciences, 535, 12–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Capodacqua, E. (2009, November 20). Padova, inchiesta doping arrestato dirigente Serbia. La Repubblica, 60. Retrieved from http://www.repubblica.it/2009/07/sport/ciclismo/doping-ct-serbia/doping-ct-serbia/doping-ct-serbia.html
  6. Chambliss, W. J. (1967, Summer). Types of deviance and the effectiveness of legal sanctions. Wisconsin Law Review, 703–719.Google Scholar
  7. Clarke, M. (1990). Business crime: Its nature and control. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  8. Clinard, M., & Quinney, R. (1973). Criminal behavior systems: A typology (2nd ed.). NewYork: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.Google Scholar
  9. D’Hont, J. (2007). Memoires van een wielerverzorger. Leuven: Van Halewyck.Google Scholar
  10. Der Kurier. (2011, December 31). Doping-Dealer_Pärchen in Kärnten verhaftet.Google Scholar
  11. DiePresse.com. (2012, January 1). Millionengewinn mit Doping: Ehepaar in Kärnten verhaftet. Retrieved from http://diepresse.com/home/sport/mehrsport/720535/Millionengewinn-mit-Doping_Ehepaar-in-Kaernten-verhaftet
  12. Donati, A. (1989). Campioni senza valore. Firenze: Ponte alle Grazie.Google Scholar
  13. Donati, A., Pesce, C., & Giampietro, M. (2011). Prevenire il doping tra gli studenti. Rome.Google Scholar
  14. Dopingkommission. (2009). Abschlussbericht der Expertenkommission zur Aufklärung von Dopingvorwürfen gegenüber Ärtzen der Abteilung Sportmedizin des Universitätsklinikums Freiburg. Retrieved from http://www.uniklinik-freiburg.de/presse/live/abschlussbericht/Abschlussbericht.pdfGoogle Scholar
  15. Fazzo, L., & Mensurati, M. (2002b, May 30). Un pentito contro Simoni Doping nel Giro che ha vinto. La Repubblica, 53. Retrieved from http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2002/05/30/un-pentito-contro-simoni-doping-nel-giro.html
  16. Fijnaut, C., & De Ruyver, B. (2008). Voor een gezamenlijke beheersing van de drugsgerelateerde criminaliteit in de Euregio Maas-Rijn. Liège: Euregio Maas-Rijn.Google Scholar
  17. Frezzi, T. (2011). Smantellato maxi traffico internazionale di anabolizzanti. Sessantenne anconetano in manette. Fatto e Diritto. Retrieved from http://www.fattodiritto.it/smantellato-maxi-traffico-internazionale-di-anabolizzanti-sessantenne-anconetano-in-manette/
  18. Gardiner, H. (2009, September 2). Pfizer pays $2.3 billion to settle marketing case. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/03/business/03health.html
  19. Geis, G. (1992). White-collar crime: What is it? In K. Schlegel & D. Weisburg (Eds.), White-collar crime reconsidered (pp. 31–52). Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gobert, J., & Punch, M. (2003). Rethinking corporate crime. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  21. Guariniello, R. (2011, September 12–14). Anti-doping investigations in Italy: Football and the 2006 Turin Olympic Games. Speech at the international symposium “Sportmedizin und Doping in Europa”, Freiburg.Google Scholar
  22. Haller, M. (1990). Illegal enterprise. A theoretical and historical interpretation. Criminology, 28(2), 207–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Il Fatto Quotidiano. (2011). L’Emilia Romagna travolta anche dallo scandalo doping. Retrieved from http://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2011/06/09/lemilia-romagna-travolta-anche-dallo-scandalo-doping/116833/
  24. Katz, M. L., & Rosen, H. S. (1994). Microeconomics (2nd ed.). Burr Ridge, IL: Irwin.Google Scholar
  25. MacMichael, S. (2011). Italian press says Armstrong secretly paid Ferrari via Swiss company. Road.cc. Retrieved from http://road.cc/content/news/44348-italian-press-says-armstrong-secretly-paid-ferrari-swiss-company
  26. Marino, G. (2011, May 23). I farmaci della camorra. La Repubblica, 24. Retrieved from http://ricerca.repubblica.it/repubblica/archivio/repubblica/2001/05/23/farmaci-della-camorra.html
  27. NAS Bologna. (2000, June 21). Comando Carabinieri per la tutela della salute. Nucleo Antisofisticazioni e Sanità di Bologna. Procedimento penale a carico di S. M. + altri. Atti relativi all’indagine delegata sul commercio clandestino di sostanze ormonali e a effetto anabolizzante destinate al doping umano. Informativa conclusiva. Rif. Proc. Pen. n. 1701/99-21 RGNR.Google Scholar
  28. NAS Brescia. (2011). Comando Carabinieri per la tutela della salute. Nucleo Antisofisticazioni e Sanità di Brescia. Informativa finale sull’esito delle indagini effettuatenei confronti di G.N. + altri.Google Scholar
  29. NAS Firenze. (2005). Indagine oil for drug. Informativa conclusiva sull’esito delle indagini.Google Scholar
  30. NAS Napoli. (2003). Comando Carabinieri per la tutela della salute. Nucleo Antisofisticazioni e Sanità di Napoli. Comunicazione notizia di reato (ex art. 347 CPP) alla Procura della Repubblica presso il Tribunale di Santa Maria Capua Vetere. Procedimento penale n. 10493/2002 RGNR.Google Scholar
  31. NAS Padova. (2009, November 3). Comando Carabinieri per la tutela della salute. Nucleo Antisofisticazioni e Sanità di Padova. Operazione “Flebo”: Utilizzo di sostanze dopanti nel ciclismo e nel rugby. Relazione al 2° Master Investigativo Antidoping. Rome.Google Scholar
  32. Nelken, D. (2007). White collar crime. In M. Maguire, R. Morgan, & R. Reiner (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of criminology (4th ed., pp. 733–770). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Pacifici, R., & Donati, A. (2011). Consulenza tecnica nel procedimento penale 5876/08 Procura della Repubblica presso il Tribunale di Mantova, Mimeo.Google Scholar
  34. Packer, G. (2011, June 27). A dirty business: New York City’s top prosecutor takes on Wall Street crime. The New Yorker. Retrieved from http://www.newyorker.com/reporting/2011/06/27/110627fa_fact_packer#ixzz1r6YB8jN7
  35. Paoli, L. (2000). Pilot project to describe and analyse local drug markets—First Phase Final Report: Illegal drug markets in Frankfurt and Milan. Lisbon: EMCDDA.Google Scholar
  36. Paoli, L. (2002a). Flexible hierarchies and dynamic disorder: The drug distribution system in Frankfurt and Milan. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy, 9(2), 143–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Paoli, L., Greenfield, V. A., & Reuter, P. (2009). The world heroin market: Can supply be cut? New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pasqualetto, A. (2011). Ricchi con i super atleti dopati» Sotto accusa le banche svizzere. Corriere della Sera. Retrieved from http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2011/settembre/21/Ricchi_con_super_atleti_dopati_co_9_110921008.shtml
  39. Preble, E., & Casey, J. J. (1969). Taking care of business, the heroin user’s life on the street. International Journal of the Addiction, 4, 1–24.Google Scholar
  40. Punch, M. (1996). Dirty business: Exploring corporate misconduct: Analysis and cases. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Reiss, A. J., Jr., & Tonry, M. (1993). Organizational crime. In A. J. Reiss & M. Tonry (Eds.), Crime and justice—The law: Crime in complex organizations (Vol. 18, pp. 1–10). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  42. Reuter, P. (1983). Disorganized crime: The economics of the visible hand. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  43. Reuter, P. (1985). The organization of illegal markets: An economic analysis. Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  44. Reuter, P., & Haaga, J. (1989). The organization of high-level drug markets: An exploratory study. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  45. Reuters. (2007, April 2). Pfizer to pay $35 mln in Genotropin settlements. Retrieved from http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/04/02/idUSWNAS544720070402
  46. Rost, P. (2006). The whistleblower: Confessions of a healthcare hitman. New York: Soft Skull Press.Google Scholar
  47. Senaat. (2005, March 9). De problematiek van de doping in de sport: Vaststellingen en aanbevelingen. Text approved by the Commission for Social Affairs. Hearings 2004–2005. Retrieved from http://www.senate.be/www/?MIval=/publications/viewPubDoc&TID=50340939&LANG=nl
  48. Simpson, S. S. (2010–2011). Making sense of white-collar crime: Theory and research. Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 8, 481–502.Google Scholar
  49. Smith, D., Jr. (1975). The Mafia mystique. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  50. Sutherland, E. H. (1945). Is white-collar crime? American Sociological Review, 10(2), 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sutherland, E. H. (1983). White-collar crime: The uncut version. New Haven: Yale University Press. (Original work published in 1948)Google Scholar
  52. Tappan, P. W. (1947). Who is the criminal? American Sociological Review, 12, 96–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Toti, G. (2003, March 26). Caso Conconi, indietro tutta. Corriere della Sera, 46. Retrieved from http://archiviostorico.corriere.it/2003/marzo/26/Caso_Conconi_indietro_tutta_co_0_030326239.shtml
  54. Transparency International. (2011). Corruption perceptions index. Retrieved from http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2011/results/
  55. Tribunale di Bologna. (2000). Ordinanza di custodia cautelare nei confronti di P.B. + altri.Google Scholar
  56. Tribunale di Bologna. (2004, October 1). Sentenza nei confronti di Ferrari Michele + 3. No. 2997/97 R.G. notizie di reato.Google Scholar
  57. Tribunale di Ferrara. (2003, November 19). Sentenza nei confronti di Conconi Francesco + altri. No. 893/99 RGNG.Google Scholar
  58. Tribunale di Forlì. (2009). Ordinanza di custodia cautelare nei confronti di V.M. + altri. No. 3870/07 RGNR.Google Scholar
  59. Tribunale di Ravenna. (2004). Ordinanza applicative di misure cautelari nei confronti di M.A. + 73. N. 619/2003 21 R.G.N.R.Google Scholar
  60. Tribunale di Rimini. (2011). Ufficio dei Giudici per le Indagini Preliminari. Ordinanza di custodia cautelare nei confronti di V.E. B. + 4. No. 2898. RGNR.Google Scholar
  61. Tribunale di Siracusa. (2010). Ufficio del Giudice per le Indagini preliminari. Ordinanza di custodia cautelare nei confronti di A.G. + altri. Proc. n. 857807/07 RGNR e Proc n. 16/2010 RGGGIP.Google Scholar
  62. U.S. Anti-Doping Agency. (2012c). Report on Proceedings under the World Anti-Doping Code and the Usada Protocol: United States Anti-Doping Agency, Claimant, v. Lance Armstrong, Respondent. Reasoned Decision of the United States Anti-Doping Agency on Disqualification and Ineligibility. Retrieved from http://cyclinginvestigation.usada.org/
  63. UNICRI. (2007). Counterfeiting: A global spread, a global threat. Retrieved from http://www.unicri.it/news/2007/0712-3_counterfeiting_crt_foundation/UNODCCP
  64. Van Duyne, P. (1997). Organised crime, corruption, and power. Crime, Law and Social Change, 26, 201–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. World Health Organization. (2012). General information on counterfeit medicines. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/medicines/services/counterfeit/overview/en/

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Letizia Paoli
    • 1
  • Alessandro Donati
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Leuven Faculty of Law LINC, Leuven Institute of CriminologyLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.LiberaRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations