National Intellectual Capital Development of the Four Large European Countries

  • Carol Yeh-Yun LinEmail author
  • Leif Edvinsson
  • Jeffrey Chen
  • Tord Beding
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Economics book series (BRIEFSECONOMICS)


In this chapter, we first present the development of national intellectual capital in the four relatively large European countries over the 6 years, then graphically display the relationship between each individual capital and GDP per capital (ppp). Afterwards, we describe the relative position of long-term and short-term intellectual capital and explain the dynamics of national intellectual capital for three time periods (2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010). Finally, we illustrate the NIC trajectory of these four countries on three-dimensional (3D) landscapes showing all 48 countries.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol Yeh-Yun Lin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Leif Edvinsson
    • 2
  • Jeffrey Chen
    • 3
  • Tord Beding
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Business AdministrationNational Chengchi UniversityTaipeiTaiwan (R.O.C.)
  2. 2.Universal Networking Intellectual CapitalNorrtaljeSweden
  3. 3.AccentureChicagoUSA
  4. 4.TC-Growth ABKarlstadSweden

Personalised recommendations