Porous Silicon as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

  • Madhuri Thakur
  • Roderick Pernites
  • Steve L. Sinsabaugh
  • Michael S. Wong
  • Sibani L. BiswalEmail author
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 187)


Lithium-ion batteries are ubiquitous in our modern society, powering everything from cell phones, laptops, and power tools.They are also powering emerging applications such as electric vehicles and used for on-grid power stabilization. Lithium-ion batteries are a significant and growing part of this market due to their high specific energy. The worldwide market for lithium-ion batteries is projected to reach more than USD 9 billion by 2015. While lithium-ion batteries are often selected for their high specific energy, the market is demanding yet higher performance, usually in terms of energy stored per unit mass of battery. Many groups have recently turned their attention toward developing a silicon-based anode material to increase lithium-ion battery density. Silicon continues to draw great interest as an anode for lithium-ion batteries due to its large specific capacity as compared to the conventional graphite. Despite this exciting property, its practical use has been limited due to a large volume change associated with the insertion and extraction of lithium, which oftentimes leads to cracking and pulverization of the anode, limiting its cycle life. To overcome this problem, significant research has been focused toward developing various silicon nanostructures to accommodate the severe volume expansion and contraction. The structuring of the silicon often involves costly processing steps, limiting its application in price sensitive commercial lithium-ion batteries. To achieve commercial viability, work is being pursued on silicon battery anode structures and processes with a special emphasis on the cost and environment. In this review book chapter, we will summarize recent development of a cost-effective electrochemically etched porous silicon as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. Briefly, the new approach involves creating hierarchical micron-and nanometer-sized pores on the surface of micron-sized silicon particulates, which are combined with an excellent conductor binder.


Porous silicon  Anode Lithium-ion battery Electrochemical etching 



This work is supported by LANCER, the Lockheed Martin Advanced Nanotechnology Center of Excellence at Rice University.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Madhuri Thakur
    • 1
  • Roderick Pernites
    • 1
  • Steve L. Sinsabaugh
    • 2
  • Michael S. Wong
    • 1
  • Sibani L. Biswal
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringRice UniversityHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Lockeed Martin, MS2AkronUSA

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