Tropical Infectious Diseases and the Kidney

  • Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
  • Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior
  • Elvino Barros
  • Domingos O. d’Avila
Chapter

Abstract

Infectious and parasitic diseases are important morbidity factors and mortality causes, accounting for more than 13 million deaths a year—one in two deaths in developing countries. Despite health providing expansion throughout, large populations are still at risk in many areas of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and the Americas. In many such populations, coexistence with HIV/AIDS has complicated diagnosis and treatment approaches, generating challenging epidemiologic dilemmas: over 33 million people currently live with HIV/AIDS worldwide. Tuberculosis, specially, poses new challenges, as nearly two billion people may have latent disease, many times in association with HIV/AIDS infection. Malaria kills over one million people per year—a majority of them young children. Most malaria deaths occur in Africa, where it accounts for one in five of all childhood deaths—women are especially vulnerable during pregnancy. Many such illnesses may be accompanied by acute or chronic kidney involvement. Acute kidney injury (AKI) and tubulointerstitial defects are frequently observed in the course of leptospirosis, malaria, and some viral hemorrhagic fevers. All known varieties of glomerular lesions have been observed, with clinical presentations ranging from mild proteinuria or hematuria to the nephrotic syndrome. Tubular dysfunction may also occur, particularly in visceral leishmaniasis and leprosy, where distal tubular acidosis may be an early clinical expression of the disease. To summarize, almost every known infectious and parasitic disease may present with kidney involvement, varying from mild to extreme, additionally burdening overwhelmed public health services.

Keywords

Bacillus Cavitation Plasmodium Sarcoidosis Amyloidosis 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth De Francesco Daher
    • 1
  • Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior
    • 2
  • Elvino Barros
    • 3
  • Domingos O. d’Avila
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Internal MedicineFederal University of CearáFortalezaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Internal MedicineFederal University of CearaFortalezaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of NephrologyUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  4. 4.Hospital São Lucas da PUCRSPorto AlegreBrazil

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