Nuclear Factors Linking Cancer and Inflammation

  • Kunzang Chosdol
  • Mohita Bhagat
  • Bhawana Dikshit
  • Evanka Madan
  • Parthaprasad Chattopadhyay
  • Subrata Sinha
Chapter
Part of the Cancer Drug Discovery and Development book series (CDD&D)

Abstract

An association between inflammation and cancer has long-been known, but the past decade has witnessed a spurt in the research linking the two processes. On the one hand chronic inflammation predisposes to cancer, on the other, neoplastic transformation predisposes towards an intrinsic pro-inflammatory microenvironment, which further promotes the progression of the malignancy. Irrespective of the stimulus, whether extrinsic (bacteria, viruses, non-healing wounds, irritants etc.) or intrinsic (oncogenes, protein kinases etc.), all signals that trigger the inflammatory microenvironment in tumor cells converge in the nucleus and coordinate inflammatory transcriptional activity by activating various nuclear/transcription factors. This forms a vicious cycle, further promoting inflammation, facilitating tumor progression, proliferation, survival and angiogenesis. This chapter focuses on transcriptional mediators intrinsic to tumour cells that enhance the inflammatory processes.

The well known nuclear/transcription factors important for this linkage are NFkB, HIF1α, AP-1 and STAT-3. The cross talk between these factors results in a complex web of signalling processes that have a marked influence on the cellular phenotype, cell-cell interactions and the interaction of the tumour with the microenvironment. This chapter focuses on the above mentioned factors and their effects, while also looking at the possibilities of utilising the same for therapeutic intervention.

Keywords

Transcription factors NFkB AP-1 STAT3 HIF1α Cancer Inflammation 

Abbreviations

AOM

Azoxymethane

AP-1

Activator protein 1

ARP 2/3

Actin-related protein 2/3 complex subunit 1B

ATF

Activating transcription factor

BAK

BCL2-antagonist/killer

BAX

BCL2-associated X protein

Bcl-2

B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2

Bcl-xl

B-cell lymphoma-extra large

CapG

Capping protein (actin filament)

cIAP2

Baculoviral IAP repeat-containing protein 3

c-Rel

Proto-oncogene c-Rel

COX-2

Cyclooxygenase-2

CRE

cAMP response element

CXCL

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand

DEN

Diethylnitrosamine

DSS

Dextran-sulphate sodium

EGF

Epidermal growth factor

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor

EMT

Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FIH

Factor inhibiting HIF

Fos

FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog

Fra

Fos–gene family member

GBM

Glioblastoma multifome

GM-CSF

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor

HIF1α

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α

IFN-γ

Interferon-gamma

IGSF4

Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like intercellular adhesion molecule

IκB

Inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells

IKK

IκB kinase

IL-1β

Interleukin 1-beta

Inos

Inducible Nitric acid synthase

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

JUN

jun proto-oncogene

KC

Keratinocyte chemokine

LPS

Bacterial lipopolysaccharides

MAF

Musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

Mcl-1

Myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1

MIP

Major intrinsic protein of lens fiber

MMP

Matrix metalloproteinase

MUC1

Mucin 1, cell surface associated

MYC

v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog

NEMO

NF-kappa B essential modulator also known as IKKγ

NF-Κb

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NIK

NF-κB inducing kinase

NSAID

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

PDCD4

Programmed cell death protein 4

PHDs

Proline hydroxylases

PIM-1

Proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase

PTEN

Phosphatase and tensin homolog

RAF1

v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog

RAS

RAS oncogene

RelA

v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A

RelB

v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog B

RHD

Rel homology domain

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SPARC

Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteines

STAT3

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3

STAT6

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6

TAMs

Tumor associated macrophages

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor beta

TNF

Tumor necrosis factor

TPA

12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate

TRAMP

Transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostrate

TRE

TPA response element

TWIST

Twist homolog (Drosophila)

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VHL

Von Hipple Lindau

ZEB

Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox

Notes

Acknowledgement

Research work of the authors cited in the text is funded by Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), India and Department of Biotechnology (DBT), India. Authors are grateful to National Brain Research Centre (NBRC), Manesar, Gurgaon, India for the facilities and co-support.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kunzang Chosdol
    • 1
  • Mohita Bhagat
    • 1
  • Bhawana Dikshit
    • 1
  • Evanka Madan
    • 1
  • Parthaprasad Chattopadhyay
    • 1
  • Subrata Sinha
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Brain Research Centre (NBRC)ManesarIndia

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