Toxoplasma lymphadenitis is lymphadenitis resulting from infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is an infection that occurs worldwide, with a 15 % seroprevalence in the United States and up to 50 % in some European countries. Infection is usually asymptomatic and serologic evidence of infection occurs in most inhabitants of areas with a warm and humid climate. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle and cats are the definitive host, where the sexual stage of reproduction occurs. Trophozoites multiply in the intestines of cats and oocysts are eliminated in their stools. Intermediate hosts for the organism, including mammals and humans, are then infected, usually through ingestion of oocysts contained in contaminated soil or infected raw or undercooked meat. Trophozoites are released from ingested oocysts in the intestine of the intermediate host, and reach the systemic circulation and internal organs where they can encyst within any type of nucleated cell and can lie dormant within tissues for the rest of the life of the host. Reactivation of infection, however, can occur in patients who become immunodeficient. Transplacental infection from mother to fetus and transmission through transplanted organs have been reported but are less common routes of infection.
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Intermediate Host Germinal Center Infectious Mononucleosis Complex Life Cycle
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