Toxoplasma Lymphadenitis

  • Roberto N. Miranda
  • Joseph D. Khoury
  • L. Jeffrey Medeiros
Chapter
Part of the Atlas of Anatomic Pathology book series (AAP)

Abstract

Toxoplasma lymphadenitis is lymphadenitis resulting from infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasmosis is an infection that occurs worldwide, with a 15 % seroprevalence in the United States and up to 50 % in some European countries. Infection is usually asymptomatic and serologic evidence of infection occurs in most inhabitants of areas with a warm and humid climate. Toxoplasma gondii has a complex life cycle and cats are the definitive host, where the sexual stage of reproduction occurs. Trophozoites multiply in the intestines of cats and oocysts are eliminated in their stools. Intermediate hosts for the organism, including mammals and humans, are then infected, usually through ingestion of oocysts contained in contaminated soil or infected raw or undercooked meat. Trophozoites are released from ingested oocysts in the intestine of the intermediate host, and reach the systemic circulation and internal organs where they can encyst within any type of nucleated cell and can lie dormant within tissues for the rest of the life of the host. Reactivation of infection, however, can occur in patients who become immunodeficient. Transplacental infection from mother to fetus and transmission through transplanted organs have been reported but are less common routes of infection.

Keywords

Lymphoma Leukemia Germinal Triad Lysozyme 

References

  1. 1.
    Rai SK, Matsumura T, Ono K, et al. High Toxoplasma seroprevalence associated with meat eating habits of locals in Nepal. Asia Pac J Public Health. 1999;11:89–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Subauste CS. Autophagy in immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;335:251–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Falusi O, French AL, Seaberg EC, et al. Prevalence and predictors of Toxoplasma seropositivity in women with and at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1414–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Montoya JG, Remington JS. Studies on the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;20:781–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Liesenfeld O, Press C, Montoya JG, et al. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test. J Clin Microbiol. 1997;35:174–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Montoya JG. Laboratory diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection and toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis. 2002;185 Suppl 1:S73–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miettinen M. Histological differential diagnosis between lymph node toxoplasmosis and other benign lymph node hyperplasias. Histopathology. 1981;5:205–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eapen M, Mathew CF, Aravindan KP. Evidence based criteria for the histopathological diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. J Clin Pathol. 2005;58:1143–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lin MH, Kuo TT. Specificity of the histopathological triad for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenitis: polymerase chain reaction study. Pathol Int. 2001;51:619–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kojima M, Kashimura M, Itoh H, et al. Infectious mononucleosis lymphoadenitis showing histologic findings indistinguishable from toxoplasma lymphadenitis. A report of three cases. Pathol Res Pract. 2010;206:361–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet. 2004;363:1965–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, Brooks JT, Pau A, Masur H. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2009;58:1–207; quiz CE1–4.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chirgwin K, Hafner R, Leport C, et al. Randomized phase II trial of atovaquone with pyrimethamine or sulfadiazine for treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: ACTG 237/ANRS 039 study. AIDS Clinical Trials Group 237/Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le SIDA, Essai 039. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:1243–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto N. Miranda
    • 1
  • Joseph D. Khoury
    • 1
  • L. Jeffrey Medeiros
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HematopathologyThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations