PBTI in High-k Oxides

Chapter

Abstract

Interaction of different materials in the multilayer high-k/metal gate stacks results in the formation of structural defects in the high-k dielectric and interfacial SiO2 layer. This section discusses the impact that defects in intrinsic Hf-based dielectric layers have on the electron trapping process and concurrent defect generation occurring under positive bias stress in NMOS devices. A brief discussion on improvements to the intrinsic Hf-based films in regards to charge trapping is also discussed.

Keywords

Migration SiO2 Zirconium 

References

  1. 1.
    G. Bersuker, B. H. Lee, and H. R. Huff, International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, vol. 16, pp. 221–239, 2006.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. Hildebrandt, J. Kurian, M. M. Muller, T. Schroeder, H.-J. Kleebe, and L. Alff, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 99, p. 112902, 2011.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    D. M. Ramo, J. L. Gavartin, A. L. Shluger, and G. Bersuker, Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics), vol. 75, p. 205336, 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. Bersuker, C. S. Park, J. Barnett, P. S. Lysaght, P. D. Kirsch, C. D. Young, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, B. Foran, K. v. Benthem, S. J. Pennycook, P. M. Lenahan, and J. T. Ryan, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 100, p. 094108, 2006.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. T. Ryan, P. M. Lenahan, G. Bersuker, and P. Lysaght, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 90, p. 173513, 2007.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. T. Ryan, P. M. Lenahan, J. Robertson, and G. Bersuker, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, p. 123506, 2008.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    B. H. Lee, R. Choi, J. H. Sim, S. A. Krishnan, J. J. Peterson, G. A. Brown, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 5, pp. 20–25, Mar 2005.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    G. Bersuker, P. Zeitzoff, J. H. Sim, B. H. Lee, R. Choi, G. Brown, and C. D. Young, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, p. 042905, Jul 2005.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    G. Bersuker, J. H. Sim, C. S. Park, C. D. Young, S. Nadkarni, R. Choi, and B. H. Lee, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2006, pp. 179–183.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Bersuker, P. Zeitzoff, J. H. Sim, B. H. Lee, R. Choi, G. A. Brown, and C. D. Young, IEEE Intl. Integrated Reliability Workshop Final Report, 2004, pp. 141–144.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. D. Young, D. Heh, S. V. Nadkarni, R. Choi, J. J. Peterson, J. Barnett, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 6, pp. 123–131, 2006.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. Kerber, E. Cartier, L. Pantisano, M. Rosmeulen, R. Degraeve, T. Kauerauf, G. Groeseneken, H. E. Maes, and U. Schwalke, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, pp. 41–45, 2003.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. Leroux, J. Mitard, G. Ghibaudo, X. Garros, G. Reimbold, B. Guillaumor, and F. Martin, IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Digest, 2004, pp. 737–740.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Shen, M. F. Li, X. P. Wang, Y. Yee-Chia, and D. L. Kwong, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, pp. 55–57, 2006.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Degraeve, A. Kerber, P. Roussell, E. Cartier, T. Kauerauf, L. Pantisano, and G. Groeseneken, IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Digest, 2003, pp. 935–938.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    C. D. Young, G. Bersuker, Y. G. Zhao, J. J. Peterson, J. Barnett, G. A. Brown, J. H. Sim, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, and P. Zeitzoff, Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 45, pp. 806–810, May-Jun 2005.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. D. Young, S. Nadkarni, D. Heh, H. R. Harris, R. Choi, J. J. Peterson, J. H. Sim, S.A. Krishnan, J. Barnett, E. Vogel, B. H. Lee, P. Zeitzoff, G. A. Brown, and G. Bersuker, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2006, pp. 169–173.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. D. Young, Y. G. Zhao, M. Pendley, B. H. Lee, K. Matthews, J. H. Sim, R. Choi, G. A. Brown, R. W. Murto, and G. Bersuker, Jap. J. of Applied Physics Part 1-Regular Papers Short Notes & Review Papers, vol. 44, pp. 2437–2440, Apr 2005.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    D. Heh, G. Bersuker, R. Choi, C. D. Young, and B. H. Lee, “A Novel Bias Temperature Instability Characterization Methodology for High-k MOSFETs,” ESSDERC, 2006, pp. 387–390.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. Yang, M. F. Li, C. Shen, C. H. Ang, Z. Chunxiang, Y. C. Yeo, G. Samudra, S. C. Rustagi, and M. B. Yu, VLSI Symposium Technical Digest, 2005, pp. 92–93.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. H. Lee, C. D. Young, R. Choi, J. H. Sim, G. Bersuker, C. Y. Kang, R. Harris, G. A. Brown, K. Matthews, S. C. Song, N. Moumen, J. Barnett, P. Lysaght, K. S. Choi, H. C. Wen, C. Huffman, H. Alshareef, P. Majhi, S. Gopalan, J. J. Peterson, P. Kirsh, H.-J. Li, J. Gutt, M. Gardner, H. R. Huff, P. Zeitzoff, R. W. Murto, L. Larson, and C. Ramiller, IEEE Intl. Electron Devices Meeting Tech. Digest, 2004, pp. 859–862.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. Kerber, E. Cartier, L. Pantisano, R. Degraeve, T. Kauerauf, Y. Kim, A. Hou, G. Groeseneken, H. E. Maes, and U. Schwalke, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 24, pp. 87–89, Feb 2003.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. Zafar, A. Kumar, E. Gusev, and E. Cartier, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 5, pp. 45–64, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. Bersuker, J. H. Sim, C. D. Young, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, P. Lysaght, G. A. Brown, P. Zeitzoff, M. Gardner, R. W. Murto, and H. R. Huff, Spring Meeting of the Material Research Society, 2004, pp. 31–35.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    L. Pantisano, E. Cartier, A. Kerber, R. Degraeve, M. Lorenzini, M. Rosmeulen, G.Groeseneken, and H. E. Maes, VLSI Symposium Technical Digest, 2003, pp. 163–164.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. D. Young, G. Bersuker, G. A. Brown, P. Lysaght, P. Zeitzoff, R. W. Murto, and H. R. Huff, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2004, pp. 597–598.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. D. Young, A. Kerber, T. H. Hou, E. Cartier, G. A. Brown, G. Bersuker, Y. Kim, J. Gutt, P. Lysaght, J. Bennett, C. H. Lee, S. Gopalan, M. Gardner, P. M. Zeitzoff, G. Groeseneken, R. W. Murto, and H. R. Huff, Fall Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Physics and Technology of High-K Gate Dielectrics - II, Orlando, FL, 2003, pp. 347–362.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    L. Vandelli, A. Padovani, L. Larcher, R. G. Southwick, W. B. Knowlton, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 58, pp. 2878–2887, 2011.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. D. Young, R. Choi, J. H. Sim, B. H. Lee, P. Zeitzoff, Y. Zhao, K. Matthews, G. A. Brown, and G. Bersuker, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2005, pp. 75–79.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    D. Heh, R. Choi, C. D. Young, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 27, pp. 849–851, 2006.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. Heh, C. D. Young, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 29, pp. 180–182, 2008. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    L. Larcher and et al., To be Published, 2013.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    D. Heh, R. Choi, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 28, pp. 245–247, 2007.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    J. H. Sim, S. C. Song, P. D. Kirsch, C. D. Young, R. Choi, D. L. Kwong, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, Microelectronic Engineering, vol. 80, pp. 218–221, Jun 2005.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    P. D. Kirsch, M. A. Quevedo-Lopez, H.-J. Li, Y. Senzaki, J. J. Peterson, S. C. Song, S. A. Krishnan, N. Moumen, J. Barnett, G. Bersuker, P. Y. Hung, B. H. Lee, T. Lafford, Q. Wang, D. Gay, and J. G. Ekerdt, Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, p. 023508, 2006.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. D. Young, D. Heh, A. Neugroschel, R. Choi, B. H. Lee, and G. Bersuker, Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 47, pp. 479–488, 2007.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    S. Deora, G. Bersuker, C. D. Young, J. Huang, K. Matthews, K. W. Ang, T. Nagi, C. Hobbs, P. D. Kirsch, and R. Jammy, International Symposium on VLSI Technology, Systems, and Applications (VLSI-TSA), 2012, pp. 1–2.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    C. D. Young, G. Bersuker, M. Jo, K. Matthews, J. Huang, S. Deora, K. Ang, T. Ngai, C. Hobbs, P. D. Kirsch, A. Padovani, and L. Larcher, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 2012, pp. 5D.3.1-5D.3.5.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    F. Crupi, R. Degraeve, A. Kerber, D. H. Kwak, and G. Groeseneken, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2004, pp. 181–187.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    E. Cartier and A. Kerber, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2009, pp.486–492.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. Kerber and E. A. Cartier, IEEE Transactions on Device and Materials Reliability, vol. 9, pp. 147–162, 2009.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. Groeseneken, H. E. Maes, N. Beltran, and R. F. De Keersmaecker, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. 31, pp. 42–53, 1984.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    D. Heh, E. Vogel, J. B. Bernstein, C. D. Young, G. A. Brown, P. Y. Hung, A. Diebold, and G. Bersuker, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, pp. 1338–1345, 2006.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. Heh, C. D. Young, G. A. Brown, P. Y. Hung, A. Diebold, G. Bersuker, E. M. Vogel, and J. B. Bernstein, Applied Physics Letters, vol. 88, p. 152907, 2006.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    C. D. Young, D. Heh, S. Nadkarni, R. Choi, J. J. Peterson, H. R. Harris, J. H. Sim, S. A. Krishnan, J. Barnett, E. Vogel, B. H. Lee, P. Zeitzoff, G. A. Brown, and G. Bersuker, International Integrated Reliability Workshop Final Report, 2005, pp. 79–83.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    G. Bersuker, P. Zeitzoff, G. A. Brown, and H. R. Huff, Materials Today, pp. 26–33, 2004.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    G. Bersuker, N. Chowdhury, C. Young, D. Heh, D. Misra, and R. Choi, IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, 2007, pp. 49–54.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    G. Bersuker, D. Heh, C. Young, H. Park, P. Khanal, L. Larcher, A. Padovani, P. Lenahan, J. Ryan, B. H. Lee, H. Tseng, and R. Jammy, IEEE International Electron Devices Meeting, 2008, pp. 1–4.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringUniversity of Texas at DallasRichardsonUSA
  2. 2.SEMATECHAlbanyUSA

Personalised recommendations