Skin Manifestations and Cryoglobulinemia

  • Chiara Baldini
  • Elisabetta Bernacchi
  • Rosaria Talarico
  • Alessandra Della Rossa
  • Stefano BombardieriEmail author


Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome (MC) is a systemic vasculitis characterized by multiple organ involvement due to the vascular deposition of immune complexes, mainly the cryoglobulins. B-lymphocyte expansion represents the underlying pathological alteration frequently triggered by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Purpura and skin ulcerations, especially of the lower extremities, are the most frequent cutaneous manifestations representing one of the hallmarks of the disease. Ulcers appear torpid and deep and are associated with high levels of pain, inflammation, and tissue necrosis. In this chapter the definition, differential diagnosis, and histological features of skin manifestations in MC will be provided.


Lichen Planus Mixed Cryoglobulinemia Skin Manifestation Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis Porphyria Cutanea Tarda 
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We thank Laura Maria Fatuzzo for her valuable contribution in reviewing the text.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chiara Baldini
    • 1
  • Elisabetta Bernacchi
    • 2
  • Rosaria Talarico
    • 1
  • Alessandra Della Rossa
    • 2
  • Stefano Bombardieri
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Internal Medicine, Rheumatology UnitUniversity of PisaPisaItaly
  2. 2.Malattie Muscolo Scheletriche e Cutanee, Ospedale S. ChiaraUnità Operativa di Reumatologia, AOUPPisaItaly

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