Livedo Reticularis

  • Stephanie W. LiuEmail author
  • Ruth Ann Vleugels


Livedo reticularis (LR) is a common physical finding consisting of a mottled, reticulated vascular pattern resulting from alterations in blood flow through the cutaneous microvasculature system. It can be benign, occurring in healthy individuals without systemic associations, or it may be secondary, occurring in association with underlying disease. Livedo reticularis can manifest by any process that reduces arteriole blood flow or venous outflow, leading to accumulation of deoxygenated venous blood. Physiologic, primary, and idiopathic LR occur without systemic associations. Systemic associations with LR include autoimmune connective tissue disease, vasospasm, vessel obstruction, medications, infections, neoplasms, and congenital, hematologic, and neurologic causes.


Skin Biopsy Physical Exam Polycythemia Vera Mycosis Fungoides Venous Outflow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Diagnostic Flow Chart 1 based on data from Gibbs MB, English JC, Zirwas MJ. Livedo reticularis: an update. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;Jun;52(6):1009–1019.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of DermatologyBrigham and Women’s Hospital/Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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