Skin Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
The clinical presentation of skin manifestations in lupus erythematosus (LE) shows great variety and, thus, has led to the differentiation into LE-specific and LE-non-specific manifestations by histological analysis of skin biopsy specimens. Skin lesions, such as urticarial vasculitis and livedo reticularis, are some of the most common LE-non-specific cutaneous manifestations and are mostly associated with systemic LE (SLE), reflecting potentially serious complications. In contrast, the LE-specific manifestations encompass the various subtypes of cutaneous LE (CLE), which is subdivided into four different categories: acute CLE (ACLE), subacute CLE (SCLE), chronic CLE (CCLE) and intermittent CLE (ICLE). It is commonly accepted that sun exposure can induce and exacerbate skin lesions in patients with all subtypes of CLE, supporting the role of ultraviolet light in the pathogenesis of the disease. This chapter summarises the clinical characteristics of the various cutaneous manifestations in SLE.
KeywordsSystemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient Mixed Connective Tissue Disease Skin Manifestation Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus
We thank P. Wissel, J. Bückmann and Professor T. A. Luger, University Muenster, Germany, for providing the clinical figures and Professor D. Metze, University Muenster, Germany, for providing the histological figures.
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