Skin Manifestations of Localized Scleroderma (LS)

  • Nicolas Hunzelmann
  • Gerd Horneff
  • Thomas KriegEmail author


Localized scleroderma is a heterogeneous disease, which is diagnosed by the occurrence of sclerotic plaques on variable sites of the integument. Usually the disease starts with an inflammatory reaction, which then develops in a fibrotic process. The underlying etiology is still unknown. The disease can be limited to a small number of lesions but can also spread over the whole integument leading to severe contractions. Based on the clinical presentation, four major types of localized scleroderma (i.e., limited, generalized, linear, and deep) can be differentiated, which are in detail described in this chapter.


Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Localize Scleroderma Eosinophilic Fasciitis Systemic Scleroderma Linear Scleroderma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Silman A, Jannini S, Symmons D, Bacon P. An epidemiological study of scleroderma in the West Midlands. Br J Rheumatol. 1988;27:286–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Peterson LS, Nelson AM, Su WP. Classification of morphea. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995;70:1068–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Christianson H, Dorsey C, O’Leary P, Kierland R. Localized scleroderma: a clinical study of two hundred thirty-five cases. Arch Dermatol. 1956;74:629–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zulian F, Vallongo C, Woo P, et al. Localized scleroderma in childhood is not just a skin disease. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52:2873–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Weibel L, Harper JI. Linear morphoea follows Blaschko’s lines. Br J Dermatol. 2008;159:175–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Bodemer C, Belon M, Hamel-Teillac D, Amoric JC, Fraitag S, Prieur AM, De Prost Y. Scleroderma in children: a retrospective study of 70 cases. Ann Dermatol Venerol. 1999;126:691–4.Google Scholar
  2. Jablonska S. Facial hemiatrophy and it’s relation to localized scleroderma. In: Jablonska S, editor. Scleroderma and pseudoscleroderma. Warsaw: PZWL; 1975. p. 537–48.Google Scholar
  3. Kencka D, Blaszczyk M, Jablonska S. Atrophoderma Pasini-Pierini is a primary atrophic abortive morphea. Dermatology. 1995;190:203–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kreuter A, Krieg T, Worm M, Wenzel J, Gambichler T, Kuhn A, Aberer E, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Hunzelmann N. Diagnosis and therapy of circumscribed scleroderma. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2009;7 Suppl 6:S1–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sommer A, Gambichler T, Bacharach-Buhles M, von Rothenburg T, Altmeyer P, Kreuter A. Clinical and serological characteristics of progressive facial hemiatrophy: a case series of 12 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006;54:227–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicolas Hunzelmann
    • 1
  • Gerd Horneff
    • 2
  • Thomas Krieg
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity CologneCologneGermany
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsAsklepios Clinic Sankt AugustinSankt AugustinGermany
  3. 3.Department of Dermatology and VenerologyUniversity Hospital of CologneCologneGermany

Personalised recommendations