Understanding TNFR1 Signaling Dynamics
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a major proinflammatory cytokine released by several proinflammatory pathways that activate transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), interleukin-1, Nod-like, and Fc receptors. The detection of TNF and its role in anticancer activity, hence its name, was well known decades before the TLRs were discovered. Today, this cytokine is known to regulate myriad critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, growth, proinflammatory response, and programmed cell death or apoptosis. Particularly, chronic aberration in the levels of baseline TNF in the human circulatory system has been attributed to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, sepsis, and cancer.
KeywordsArthritis Osteoporosis Interferon Ligase
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