Advertisement

Image-Guided Cardiac Electrophysiology Procedures Focusing on MRI Guidance

Image-Guided Cardiac EP Procedures
  • Ehud J. Schmidt
  • Charles L. Dumoulin
  • Stephan A. Danik
Chapter

Abstract

Cardiac electrophysiology (EP) is a rapidly growing field, a result of the large and growing number of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation (AF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). The success rate of ablation in patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF is approximately 70 % and 50 %, respectively; while in those with scar-related ventricular tachycardia, the success rate is approximately 50 %. As a result, there is a need for improved procedural techniques and a deeper understanding of recurrences in failed procedures. The field of EP has generated considerable industrial interest, so that the field is highly advanced technologically and uses tools that are not frequently seen in other surgical or interventional fields.

MR imaging offers unique solutions to several current EP procedural limitations, by providing robust multi-contrast imaging of the cardiac chambers’ lumen and wall. As a result, cardiac-MRI imaging has grown in prominence as a pre- and post-procedural EP tool. We cover the growth of MRI in these applications and then discuss the more complex issues entailed in performance of intra-procedural MRI, which may greatly improve EP outcomes and is a topic of extensive present research. We discuss the requirements of intra-procedural MRI and demonstrate one system built to address these needs.

We discuss applications in which preclinical and clinical results have already been obtained using intra-procedural MRI. We also present emerging MRI sequences and clinical applications which may further extend the utility of MRI-guided EP.

Keywords

Atrial Fibrillation Ventricular Tachycardia Late Gadolinium Enhancement Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Ablation Lesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge funding from AHA SDG 10S0G2610139, NCRR/NCI 1P41RR019703-01A2, NHLBI R43 HL110427-01, and NHLBI K23 HL68064. We would also like to thank all of those who kindly provided us with images.

References

  1. 1.
    Fuster V, Rydén LE, Cannom DS, Crijns HJ, Curtis AB, Ellenbogen KA, et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2006;114:e257–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ, Belanger AJ, Kannel WB, Levy D, D’Agostino RB. Secular trends in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation: the Framingham study. Am Heart J. 1996;131(4):790–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, Cha SS, Bailey KR, Abhayaratna WP, Seward JB, Tsang TS. Secular trends in incidence of atrial fibrillation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1980 to 2000, and implications on the projections for future prevalence. Circulation. 2006;114:119–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aliot EM, Stevenson WG, Almendral-Garrote JM, Bogun F, Calkins CH, Delacretaz E, Della Bella P, Hindricks G, Jais P, Josephson ME, Kautzner J, Kay GN, Kuck KH, Lerman BB, Marchlinski F, Reddy V, Schalij MJ, Schilling R, Soejima K, Wilber D. European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), Registered Branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), American College of Cardiology (ACC), American Heart Association (AHA). EHRA/HRS Expert Consensus on Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias: developed in a partnership with the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), a Registered Branch of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS); in collaboration with the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). Heart Rhythm. 2009;6:886–933.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Bailey KR, Cha SS, Gersh BJ, Seward JB, Tsang TS. Mortality trends in patients diagnosed with first atrial fibrillation: a 21-year community-based study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:986–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, Cha SS, Bailey KR, Seward JB, Tsang TS. Changing trends of hospital utilization in patients after their first episode of atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:568–72.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miyasaka Y, Barnes ME, Gersh BJ, Cha SS, Seward JB, Bailey KR, Iwasaka T, Tsang TS. Time trends of ischemic stroke incidence and mortality in patients diagnosed with first atrial fibrillation in 1980 to 2000: report of a community-based study. Stroke. 2005;36:2362–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Calkins H, Brugada J, Packer DL, Cappato R, et al. HRS/EHRA/ECAS expert consensus statement on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: recommendations for personnel, policy, procedures and follow-up. A report of the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) Task Force on catheter and surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:816–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Walker MJA, Pugsley MK. Methods in Cardiac Electrophysiology. CRC Press methods in the life sciences: CRC Press methods in pharmacology. 1998.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Josephson ME. Clinical cardiac electrophysiology: techniques and interpretations. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Press; 2008.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zimetbaum PJ, Josephson ME. Practical clinical electrophysiology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2009.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hijazi ZM, Shivkumar K, Sahn DJ. Intracardiac echocardiography during interventional and electrophysiological cardiac catheterization. Circulation. 2009;119:587–96.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dong J, Calkins H, Solomon SB, Lai S, Dalal D, Lardo AC, Brem E, Preiss A, Berger RD, Halperin H, Dickfeld T. Integrated electroanatomic mapping with three-dimensional computed tomographic images for real-time guided ablations. Circulation. 2006;113:186–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Malchano ZJ, Neuzil P, Cury RC, Holmvang G, Weichet J, Schmidt EJ, Ruskin JN, Reddy VY. Integration of cardiac CT/MR imaging with three-dimensional electroanatomical mapping to guide catheter manipulation in the left atrium: implications for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17:1221–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Okumura Y, Johnson SB, Bunch TJ, Henz BD, O’Brien CJ, Packer DL. A systematical analysis of in vivo contact forces on virtual catheter tip/tissue surface contact during cardiac mapping and intervention. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008;19:632–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Hansen Medical, Inc. Mountain view, CA. www.hansenmedical.com. Also Saliba W, Reddy VY, Wazni O, Cummings JE, Burkhardt JD, Haissaguerre M, Kautzner J, Peichl P, Neuzil P, Schibgilla V, Noelker G, Brachmann J, Di Biase L, Barrett C, Jais P, Natale A. Atrial fibrillation ablation using a robotic catheter remote control system: initial human experience and long-term follow-up results. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51:2407–11.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Steriotaxis, Inc. St. Louis, MO. www.stereotaxis.com. Also Pappone C, Vicedomini G, Manguso F, Gugliotta F, Mazzone P, Gulletta S, Sora N, Sala S, Marzi A, Augello G, Livolsi L, Santagostino A, Santinelli V. Robotic magnetic navigation for atrial fibrillation ablation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:1390–400.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cheema A, Dong J, Dalal D, Marine JE, Henrikson CA, Spragg D, Cheng A, Nazarian S, Bilchick K, Sinha S, Scherr D, Almasry I, Halperin H, Berger R, Calkins H. Incidence and time course of early recovery of pulmonary vein conduction after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2007;18:387–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Weerasooriay R, Khairy P, Litalien J, Macle L, Hocini M, et al. Catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Ares results maintained for 5 years of follow up? J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011;57:160–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cheema A, Dong J, Dalal D, Vasamreddy CR, Marine JE, Henrikson CA, Spragg D, Cheng A, Nazarian S, Sinha S, Halperin H, Berger R, Calkins H. Long-term safety and efficacy of circumferential ablation with pulmonary vein isolation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006;17:1080–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bahnson TD. Strategies to minimize the risk of esophageal injury during catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2009;32:248–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bunch TJ, Ellenbogen KA, Packer DL, Asirvatham SJ. Vagus nerve injury after posterior atrial radiofrequency ablation. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5:1327–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cappato R, Calkins H, Chen SA, Davies W, Iesaka Y, Kalman J, Kim YH, Klein G, Natale A, Packer D, Skanes A. Prevalence and causes of fatal outcome in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;53:1798–803.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Badger TJ, Adjei-Poku YA, Burgon NS, Kalvaitis S, Shaaban A, Sommers DN, Blauer JJ, Fish EN, Akoum N, Haslem TS, Kholmovski EG, MacLeod RS, Adler DG, Marrouche NF. Initial experience of assessing esophageal tissue injury and recovery using delayed-enhancement MRI after atrial fibrillation ablation. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009;2:620–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dong J, Vasamreddy CR, Jayam V, Dalal D, Dickfeld T, Eldadah Z, Meininger G, Halperin HR, Berger R, Bluemke DA, Calkins H. Incidence and predictors of pulmonary vein stenosis following catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation using the anatomic pulmonary vein ablation approach: results from paired magnetic resonance imaging. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2005;16:845–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sacher F, Tedrow UB, Field M, Raymond J-M, Koplan BA, Epstein LM, Stevenson WG. Ventricular tachycardia ablation: evolution of patients and procedures over 8 years. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2008;1:153–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Biosense-Webster, Inc. Diamond Bar, CA. www.biosensewebster.com
  28. 28.
    St Jude Medical, Inc. St. Paul, MN. www.sjm.com
  29. 29.
    Gepstein L, Hayam G, Ben-Haim SA. A novel method for nonfluoroscopic catheter-based electroanatomical mapping of the heart : in vitro and in vivo accuracy results. Circulation. 1997;95:1611–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stevenson WG, DelaCretaz E, Friedman PL, Ellison KE. Identification and ablation of macroreentrant ventricular tachycardia with the CARTO electroanatomical mapping system. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 1998;21:1448–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wein W, Camus E, John M, Diallo M, Duong C, Al-Ahmad A, Fahrig R, Khamene A, Xu C. Towards guidance of electrophysiological procedures with real-time 3D intracardiac echocardiography fusion to C-arm CT. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv. 2009;12:9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hauser TH, Peters DC, Wylie JV, Manning WJ. Evaluating the left atrium by magnetic resonance imaging. Europace. 2008;10 Suppl 3:iii22–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Perk G, Lang RM, Garcia-Fernandez MA, Lodato J, Sugeng L, Lopez J, Knight BP, Messika-Zeitoun D, Shah S, Slater J, Brochet E, Varkey M, Hijazi Z, Marino N, Ruiz C, Kronzon I. Use of real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in intracardiac catheter based interventions. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2009;22:865–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Packer DL, Johnson SB, Kolasa MW, Bunch TJ, Henz BD, Okumura Y. New generation of electro-anatomic mapping: full intracardiac ultrasound image integration. Europace. 2008;10 Suppl 3:iii35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kistler PM, Schilling RJ, Rajappan K, Sporton SC. Image integration for atrial fibrillation ablation – pearls and pitfalls. Heart Rhythm. 2007;4:1216–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Heist EK, Chevalier J, Holmvang G, Singh JP, Ellinor PT, Milan DJ, D’Avila A, Mela T, Ruskin JN, Mansour M. Factors affecting error in integration of electroanatomic mapping with CT and MR imaging during catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Interv Card Electrophysiol. 2006;17:21–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nazarian S. New technologies and therapies for cardiac arrhythmias. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2010;58:731–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Joshi SB, Blum AR, Mansour M, Abbara S. CT applications in electrophysiology. Cardiol Clin. 2009;27:619–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lardo AC, McVeigh ER, Jumrussirikul P, Berger RD, Calkins H, Lima J, Halperin HR. Visualization and temporal/spatial characterization of cardiac radiofrequency ablation lesions using magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2000;102:698–705.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dickfeld T, Kato R, Zviman M, Lai S, Meininger G, Lardo AC, Roguin A, Blumke D, Berger R, Calkins H, Halperin H. Characterization of radiofrequency ablation lesions with gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:370–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dickfeld T. Magnetic resonance imaging and radiofrequency ablations. Herzschrittmacherther Elektrophysiol. 2007;18:147–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Peters DC, Wylie JV, Hauser TH, Kissinger KV, Botnar RM, Essebag V, Josephson ME, Manning WJ. Detection of pulmonary vein and left atrial scar after catheter ablation with three-dimensional navigator-gated delayed enhancement MR imaging: initial experience. Radiology. 2007;243:690–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kwong RY. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Totowa: Humana Press; 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Manning WJ. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance. New York: Churchill Livingstone Press; 2010.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Lee VS. Cardiovascular MR imaging: physical principles to practical protocols. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lardo AC, Fayad ZA, Chronos NAF, Fuster V. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance: established and emerging applications. London: Martin Dunitz press; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Geva T, Marshal AC. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided catheter interventions in congenital heart disease. Circulation. 2006;113:1051–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lederman RJ. Cardiovascular interventional magnetic resonance imaging. Circulation. 2005;112:3009–17.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Figtree GA, Lønborg J, Grieve SM, Ward MR, Bhindi R. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Interventional Cardiologist. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2011;4:137–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kos S, Huegli R, Bongartz GM, Jacob AL, Bilecen D. MR-guided endovascular interventions: a comprehensive review on techniques and applications. Eur Radiol. 2008;18:645–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Ratnayaka K, Faranesh AZ, Guttman MA, Kocaturk O, Saikus CE, Lederman RJ. Interventional cardiovascular magnetic resonance: still tantalizing. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2008;10:62: 1–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Raval AN, Lederman RJ. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging to guide pediatric endovascular procedures. Pediatr Cardiol. 2005;26:251–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bunch TJ, Weiss JP, Crandall BG, Day JD, DiMarco JP, Ferguson JD, Mason PK, McDaniel G, Osborn JS, Wiggins D, Mahapatra S. Image integration using intracardiac ultrasound and 3D reconstruction for scar mapping and ablation of ventricular tachycardia. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2010;21:678–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Peichl P, Kautzner J, Gebauer R. Ablation of atrial tachycardias after correction of complex congenital heart diseases: utility of intracardiac echocardiography. Europace. 2009;11:48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dukkipati SR, Mallozzi R, Schmidt EJ, Holmvang G, D’Avila A, Guhde R, Darrow RD, Slavin G, Fung M, Malchano Z, Kampa G, Dando JD, McPherson C, Foo TK, Ruskin JN, Dumoulin CL, Reddy VY. Electroanatomic mapping of the left ventricle in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction with magnetic resonance-based catheter tracking. Circulation. 2008;118:853–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Peters DC, Appelbaum EA, Nezafat R, Dokhan B, Han Y, Kissinger KV, Goddu B, Manning WJ. Left ventricular infarct size, peri-infarct zone, and papillary scar measurements: a comparison of high-resolution 3D and conventional 2D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MR. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2009;30:794–800.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Peters DC, Hsing J, Kissinger KV, Goddu B, Nezafat R, Taclas JE, Josephson ME, Wylie JV, Manning WJ. T2-weighted imaging of the left atrium acutely after pulmonary vein isolation demonstrates wall thickening and edema. ISMRM proceedings. 2009, Honolulu, Hawaii.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kellman P, Aletras AH, Mancini C, McVeigh ER, Arai AE. T2-prepared SSFP improves diagnostic confidence in edema imaging in acute myocardial infarction compared to turbo spin echo. Magn Reson Med. 2007;57:891–7.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Aletras AH, Tilak GS, Natanzon A, Hsu LY, Gonzalez FM, Hoyt RF, Arai AE. Retrospective determination of the area at risk for reperfused acute myocardial infarction with T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: histopathological and displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) functional validations. Circulation. 2006;113:1865–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ashikaga H, Mickelsen SR, Ennis DB, Rodriguez I, Kellman P, Wen H, McVeigh ER. Electromechanical analysis of infarct border zone in chronic myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H1099–105.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kuppahally SS, Akoum N, Burgon NS, Badger TJ, Kholmovski EG, Vijayakumar S, Rao SN, Blauer J, Fish EN, Dibella EV, Macleod RS, McGann C, Litwin SE, Marrouche NF. Left atrial strain and strain rate in patients with paroxysmal and persistent atrial fibrillation: relationship to left atrial structural remodeling detected by delayed-enhancement MRI. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:231–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Grissom WA, Lustig M, Holbrook AB, Rieke V, Pauly JM, Butts-Pauly K. Reweighted L1 referenceless PRF shift thermometry. Magn Reson Med. 2010;64:1068–77.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kolandaivelu A, Zviman MM, Castro V, Lardo AC, Berger RD, Halperin HR. Non-invasive assessment of tissue heating during cardiac radiofrequency ablation using MRI thermography. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2010;3:521–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Akoum N, Daccarett M, McGann C, Segerson N, Vergara G, Kuppahally S, Badger T, Burgon N, Haslam T, Kholmovski E, Macleod R, Marrouche N. Atrial fibrosis helps select the appropriate patient and strategy in catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: a DE-MRI guided approach. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2011;22:16–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wylie JV, Peters DC, Essebag V, Manning WJ, Josephson ME, Hauser TH. Left atrial function and scar after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. Heart Rhythm. 2008;5:656–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brainlab Inc, Feldkirchen, Germany. www.brainlab.com
  67. 67.
    IMRIS, Inc. Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. www.imris.com
  68. 68.
    Fahrig R, Butts K, Rowlands JA, Saunders R, Stanton J, Stevens GM, Daniel BL, Wen Z, Ergun DL, Pelc NL. A truly hybrid interventional MR/X-Ray system: feasibility demonstration. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2001;13:294–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dumoulin CL, Mallozzi RP, Darrow RD, Schmidt EJ. Phase-field dithering for active catheter tracking. Magn Reson Med. 2010;63:1398–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Robin Medical, Inc Baltimore, MD, www.robinmedical.com
  71. 71.
    IMRICOR, Inc. Burnsville, MN. www.imricor.com
  72. 72.
    MRI Interventions, Inc. Memphis, TN. www.mriinterventions.com
  73. 73.
    Gross P, Kitney RI, Claesen S, Halls JM. MR-compatible endoscopy and tracking for image-guided surgery. Comput Assist Radiol Surg. 2001;1230:1076–82.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Terumo Medical Corporation Inc., Somerset, NJ. www.terumomedical.com
  75. 75.
    Biotronik Vascular Intervention, Bulach, Switzerland. www.biotronik.com
  76. 76.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology, Aachen, Germany. www.ipt.fraunhofer.de
  77. 77.
    Settecase F, Hetts SW, Martin AJ, Roberts TP, Bernhardt AF, Evans L, Malba V, Saeed M, Arenson RL, Kucharzyk W, Wilson MW. RF heating of MRI-assisted catheter steering coils for interventional MRI. Acad Radiol. 2011;18:277–85.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Tse TZ, Dumoulin CL, Clifford G, Jerosch-Herold M, Kacher D, Kwong R, Stevenson WG, Schmidt EJ. MRI-compatible 12-lead ECGs for image guided therapy. In: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine annual meeting, Montreal, 2011.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Boston Scientific, Inc., Natick, MA. www.bostonscientific.com/
  80. 80.
    Dick AJ, Guttman MA, Raman VK, Peters DC, Pessanha BS, Hill JM, Smith S, Scott G, McVeigh ER, Lederman RJ. Magnetic resonance fluoroscopy allows targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to infarct borders in Swine. Circulation. 2003;108:2899–904.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gupta A, Weeks AR. Simulation of elevated T-waves of an ECG inside a static magnetic field (MRI). IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2008;55:1890–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nijm GM, Swiryn S, Larson AC, Sahakian AV. Extraction of the magnetohydrodynamic blood flow potential from the surface electrocardiogram in magnetic resonance imaging. Med Biol Eng Comput. 2008;46:729–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Fischer SE, Wickline SA, Lorenz CH. Novel real-time R-wave detection algorithm based on the vectorcardiogram for accurate gated magnetic resonance acquisitions. Magn Reson Med. 1999;42:361–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Schmidt EJ, Tse TH, Watkins R, Byrd I, Schweitzer J, Clifford G, Kwong RY, Gregory Michaud G, Stevenson WG, Dumoulin CL. MRI-compatible 12-lead ECGs and voltage-based EAM for MRI-guided electrophysiology, magnetic resonance angiography, Banff, 2011.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wu V, Barbash IM, Ratnayaka K, Saikus CE, Sonmez M, Kocaturk O, Lederman RJ, Faranesh AZ. Adaptive noise cancellation to suppress electrocardiography artifacts during real-time interventional MRI. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2011;33:1184–93.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Nazarian S, Roguin A, Zviman MZ, Lardo AC, Dickfeld TL, Calkins H, Weiss RG, Berger RD, Bluemke DA, Henry R, Halperin HR. Clinical utility and safety of a protocol for noncardiac and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of patients with permanent pacemakers and implantable-cardioverter defibrillators at 1.5 Tesla. Circulation. 2006;114:1277–84.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Medtronics, Inc., Minneapolis, MN. www.medtronic.com
  88. 88.
    Bottomley PA, Kumar A, Edelstein WA, Allen JM, Karmarkar PV. Designing passive MRI-safe implantable conducting leads with electrodes. Med Phys. 2010;37:3828–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Vernickel P, Schulz V, Weiss S, Gleich B. A safe transmission line for MRI. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2005;52:1094–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Nezafat R, Han Y, Peters DC, Herzka DA, Wylie JV, Goddu B, Kissinger KK, Yeon SB, Zimetbaum PJ, Manning WJ. Coronary magnetic resonance vein imaging: imaging contrast, sequence, and timing. Magn Reson Med. 2007;58:1196–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Schmidt EJ, Noseworthy PA, Armour JA, Malchano Z, Reddy VY. Location of porcine cardiac autonomic nerve plexi with fat-suppressed MRI. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2006;8:237.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Reddy VY, Schmidt EJ, Holmvang G, Fung M. Arrhythmia recurrence after atrial fibrillation ablation: can magnetic resonance imaging identify gaps in atrial ablation lines? J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2008;19:434–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    McGann CJ, Kholmovski EG, Oakes RS, Blauer JJ, Daccarett M, Segerson N, Airey KJ, Akoum N, Fish E, Badger TJ, DiBella EV, Parker D, MacLeod RS, Marrouche NF. New magnetic resonance imaging-based method for defining the extent of left atrial wall injury after the ablation of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008;52:1263–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Korosoglou G, Youssef AA, Bilchick KC, Ibrahim E, Lardo AC, Lai S, Osman NF. Real-time fast strain-encoded magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate regional myocardial function at 3.0 Tesla: comparison to conventional tagging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2008;27:1012–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Schmidt EJ, Fung MM, Aksit P, Holmvang G, Song T, Gupta SN, D’Avila A, Reddy VY, Danik SB. Navigated DENSE strain imaging for post RF-ablation lesion assessment in swine left atria: a comparison with delayed enhancement. Abstract presented at: International Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, Honolulu, 2009.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jeon K, Kim HJ, Lee C-O, SeoJ K, Woo EJ. Integration of denoising, inpainting and local harmonic Bz algorithm for MREIT imaging of intact animals. Phys Med Biol. 2010;55:7541–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kim HJ, Oh TI, Kim YT, Lee BI, Woo EJ, Seo JK, Lee SY, Kwon O, Park C, Kang BT, Park HM. In vivo electrical conductivity imaging of a canine brain using a 3T MREIT system. Physiol Meas. 2008;29:1145–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Heartvista Inc, Mountain View, CA. www.heartvista.com
  99. 99.
    Schmidt EJ, Mallozzi RP, Thiagalingam A, Holmvang G, D’Avila A, Guhde R, Darrow RR, Slavin GS, Fung M, Dando J, Foley L, Dumoulin CL, Reddy VY. Electro-anatomic mapping and radio-frequency ablation of porcine left atria and atrio-ventricular nodes using magnetic resonance catheter tracking. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2009;2(2):695–704.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Razavi R, Hill DL, Keevil SF, Miquel ME, Muthurangu V, Hegde S, Rhode K, Barnett M, van Vaals J, Hawkes DJ, Baker E. Cardiac catheterisation guided by MRI in children and adults with congenital heart disease. Lancet. 2003;362:1877–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Nazarian S, Kolandaivelu A, Zviman MM, Meininger GR, Kato R, Susil RC, Roguin A, Dickfeld TL, Ashikaga H, Calkins H, Berger RD, Bluemke DA, Lardo AC, Halperin HR. Feasibility of real-time magnetic resonance imaging for catheter guidance in electrophysiology studies. Circulation. 2008;118:223–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Vergara GR, Vijayakumar S, Kholmovski EG, Blauer JJ, Guttman MA, Gloschat C, Payne G, Vij K, Akoum NW, Daccarett M, McGann CJ, Macleod RS, Marrouche NF. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging-guided radiofrequency atrial ablation and visualization of lesion formation at 3 Tesla. Heart Rhythm. 2011;8:295–303.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ehud J. Schmidt
    • 1
  • Charles L. Dumoulin
    • 2
  • Stephan A. Danik
    • 3
  1. 1.National Center for Image Guided Therapy, Department of RadiologyBrigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Department of RadiologyCincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterCincinnatiUSA
  3. 3.Department of CardiologyMassachusetts General HospitalBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations