Advertisement

Effects of Trauma on Students: Early Intervention Through the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools

  • Erum Nadeem
  • Lisa H. Jaycox
  • Audra K. Langley
  • Marleen Wong
  • Sheryl H. Kataoka
  • Bradley D. Stein
Chapter
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

The potential negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events on the academic success and mental health of children and adolescents are well documented, particularly the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Providing school-based interventions for students who are experiencing trauma symptoms has great potential to meet unmet mental health needs, build resilience, and support students’ academic success. The current chapter provides an overview of the effect of trauma on students, and describes the development and core components of the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS. The chapter also summarizes the research evidence and implementation experiences with CBITS, and highlights future directions for research and practice for supporting students exposed to traumatic events.

Keywords

Traumatic Event Trauma Exposure School Staff Cognitive Behavioral Treatment School Mental Health 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Beers, S. R., & De Bellis, M. D. (2002). Neuropsychological function in children with maltreatment-related posttraumatic stress disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(3), 483–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bowen, N., & Bowen, G. (1999). Effects of crime and violence in neighborhoods and schools on the school behavior and performance of adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 14(3), 319–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bride, B. E. (2007). Prevalence of secondary traumatic stress among social workers. Social Work, 52(1), 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burns, B. J., Costello, E. J., Angold, A., Tweed, D., Stangl, D., Farmer, E. M., et al. (1995). Children’s mental health service use across service sectors. Health Affairs, 14(3), 147–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cichetti, C. (2011). CBITS implementation in Chicago: Funding flows from public policy. Presentation at the 3rd Annual CBITS Summit, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  6. Cohen, J. A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A., & Steer, R. (2004). A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cohen, J. A., Jaycox, L. H., Walker, D. W., Mannarino, A. P., Langley, A. K., & DuClos, J. L. (2009). Treating traumatized children after Hurricane Katrina: Project Fleur-de lis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12(1), 55–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cooley-Quille, M., Boyd, R. C., Frantz, E., & Walsh, J. (2001). Emotional and behavioral impact of exposure to community violence in inner-city adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(2), 199–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dean, K. L., Langley, A. K., Kataoka, S. H., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., & Stein, B. D. (2008). School-based disaster mental health services: Clinical, policy, and community challenges. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(1), 52–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Delaney-Black, V., Covington, C., Ondersma, S. J., Nordstrom-Klee, B., Templin, T., Ager, J., et al. (2002). Violence exposure, trauma, and IQ and/or reading deficits among urban children. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156(3), 280–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Domitrovich, C. E., Bradshaw, C. P., Poduska, J. M., Hoagwood, K., Buckley, J. A., Olin, S., et al. (2008). Maximizing the implementation quality of evidence-based preventive interventions in schools: A conceptual framework. Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1(3), 6–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feldstein, A. C., & Glasgow, R. E. (2008). A practical, robust implementation and sustainability model (PRISM) for integrating research findings into practice. Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, 34(4), 228–243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Figley, C. R. (2002). Compassion fatigue: Psychotherapists’ chronic lack of self care. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(11), 1433–1441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Finkelhor, D. (1995). The victimization of children: A developmental perspective. The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 65(2), 177–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. L. (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1411–1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fixsen, D. L., Naoom, S. F., Blasé, K. A., Friedman, R. M., & Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation research: A synthesis of the literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network.Google Scholar
  17. Foa, E. B., Dancu, C. V., Hembree, E. A., Jaycox, L. H., Meadows, E. A., & Street, G. P. (1999). A comparison of exposure therapy, stress inoculation training, and their combination for reducing posttraumatic stress disorder in female assault victims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(2), 194–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Foa, E. B., Johnson, K. M., Feeny, N. C., & Treadwell, K. R. (2001). The Child PTSD symptom scale: A preliminary examination of its psychometric properties. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30, 376–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fowler, P. J., Tompsett, C. J., Braciszewski, J. M., Jacques-Tiura, A. J., & Baltes, B. B. (2009). Community violence: A meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1), 227–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frieden, T. R. (2010). A framework for public health action: The health impact pyramid. American Journal of Public Health, 100(4), 590–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Garbarino, J., & Kostelny, K. (1992). Child maltreatment as a community problem. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(4), 455–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garrison, E. G., Roy, I. S., & Azar, V. (1999). Responding to the mental health needs of Latino children and families through school-based services. Clinical Psychology Review, 19(2), 199–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Goodkind, J. R., Lanoue, M. D., & Milford, J. (2010). Adaptation and implementation of cognitive behavioral intervention for trauma in schools with American Indian youth. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 39(6), 858–872.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Greenhalgh, T., Robert, G., MacFarland, F., Bate, P., & Kyriakidou, O. (2004). Diffusion of innovations in service organizations: Systematic review and recommendations. The Milbank Quarterly, 82(4), 581–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Grogger, J. (1997). Local violence and educational attainment. The Journal of Human Resources, 32(4), 659–682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guerra, N. G., Huesmann, L. R., & Spindler, A. (2003). Community violence exposure, social cognition, and aggression among urban elementary school children. Child Development, 74(5), 1561–1576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hurt, H., Malmud, E., Brodsky, N. L., & Giannetta, J. (2001). Exposure to violence: Psychological and academic correlates in child witnesses. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 155(12), 1351–1356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Jaycox, L. H. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral intervention for trauma in schools. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services.Google Scholar
  29. Jaycox, L. H., Cohen, J. A., Mannarino, A. P., Walker, D. W., Langley, A. K., Gegenheimer, K. L., et al. (2010). Children’s mental health care following Hurricane Katrina: A field trial of trauma-focused psychotherapies. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23(2), 223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., Wong, M., & Langley, A. (2005). Responding to the needs of the community: A stepped care approach to implementing trauma-focused interventions in schools. Report on Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Youth, 5(4), 85–88. 100–103.Google Scholar
  31. Jaycox, L. H., Langley, A., & Dean, K. L. (2012). Support for students exposed to Trauma (Japanese translation). Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/TR675z1.html
  32. Jaycox, L. H., Langley, A. K., Stein, B. D., Wong, M., Sharma, P., Scott, M., et al. (2009). Support for students exposed to trauma: A pilot study. School Mental Health, 1(2), 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jaycox, L. H., Stein, B. D., Kataoka, S. H., Wong, M., Fink, A., Escudero, P., et al. (2002). Violence exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, and depressive symptoms among recent immigrant schoolchildren. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(9), 1104–1110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kataoka, S. H., Fuentes, S., O'Donoghue, V. P., Castillo-Campos, P., Bonilla, A., Halsey, K., et al. (2006). A community participatory research partnership: The development of a faith-based intervention for children exposed to violence. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(Suppl. 1), S89–S97.Google Scholar
  35. Kataoka, S. H., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Nadeem, E., Langley, A., Tang, L., et al. (2011). Effects on school outcomes in low-income minority youth: Preliminary findings from a community-partnered study of a school trauma intervention. Ethnicity & Disease, 21(3), 71.Google Scholar
  36. Kataoka, S., Langley, A. K., Wong, M., Baweja, S., & Stein, B. D. (2012). Responding to students with posttraumatic stress disorder in schools. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 21(1), 119–133. x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Escudero, P., Tu, W., et al. (2003). A school-based mental health program for traumatized Latino immigrant children. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(3), 311–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kataoka, S., Zhang, L., & Wells, K. B. (2002). Unmet need for mental health care among US children: Variation by ethnicity and insurance status. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(9), 1548–1555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kearney, C. A. (2003). Bridging the gap among professionals who address youths with school absenteeism: Overview and suggestions for consensus. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(1), 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kennedy, A. C., Bybee, D., Sullivan, C. M., & Greeson, M. (2009). The effects of community and family violence exposure on anxiety trajectories during middle childhood: The role of family social support as a moderator. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 38(3), 365–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Oskin, D., & Johnson, P. D. (1998). The role of social and cognitive processes in children’s adjustment to community violence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 199–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ko, S. J. F., Julian, D., Kassam-Adams, N., Berkowitz, S. J., Wilson, C., Wong, M., et al. (2008). Creating trauma-informed systems: Child welfare, education, first responders, health care, juvenile justice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 39(4), 396–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Langley, A. K., Bergman, R. L., McCracken, J., & Piacentini, J. C. (2004). Impairment in childhood anxiety disorders: Preliminary examination of the child anxiety impact scale-parent version. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 14(1), 105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Langley, A. K., Nadeem, E., Kataoka, S. H., Stein, B. D., & Jaycox, L. H. (2010). Evidence-based mental health programs in schools: Barriers and facilitators of successful implementation. School Mental Health, 2(3), 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Last, C. G., & Strauss, C. C. (1990). School refusal in anxiety-disordered children and adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29(1), 31–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. March, J. S., Amaya-Jackson, L., Murray, M. C., & Schulte, A. (1998). Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a single-incident stressor. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(6), 585–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McMiller, W. P., & Weisz, J. R. (1996). Help-seeking preceding mental health clinic intake among African-American, Latino, and Caucasian youths. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(8), 1086–1094.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Morsette, A., Swaney, G., Stolle, D., Schuldberg, D., van den Pol, R., & Young, M. (2009). Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS): School-based treatment on a rural American Indian reservation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40(1), 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Nadeem, E., Jaycox, L., Kataoka, S. H., Langley, A. K., & Stein, B. D. (2011). Going to scale: Experiences implementing a school-based trauma intervention. School Psychology Review, 40(4), 549–568.Google Scholar
  50. Ngo, V., Langley, A., Kataoka, S. H., Nadeem, E., Escudero, P., & Stein, B. D. (2008). Providing evidence-based practice to ethnically diverse youths: Examples from the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) program. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47(8), 858–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Overstreet, S. (2000). Exposure to community violence: Defining the problem and understanding the consequences. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(1), 7–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Reschly, D. J., & Bergstrom, M. K. (2009). Response to intervention. In T. B. Gutkin & C. R. Reynolds (Eds.), The handbook of school psychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  53. Rew, L., Resnick, M. D., & Blum, R. W. (1997). An exploration of help-seeking behaviors in female Hispanic adolescents. Family & Community Health, 20(3), 1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saigh, P. A., Mroueh, M., & Bremner, J. D. (1997). Scholastic impairments among traumatized adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(5), 429–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schreiber, M., Gurwitch, R., & Wong, M. (2008). Listen, protect, connect—model & teach: Psychological first aid (PFA) for students and teachers. Folsom, CA: US Department of Education, Technical Assistance Center.Google Scholar
  56. Schultz, D., Barnes-Proby, D., Chandra, A., Jaycox, L. H., Maher, E., & Pecora, P. (2010). Toolkit for Adapting Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) or Supporting Students Exposed to Trauma (SSET) for Implementation with Youth in Foster Care. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.Google Scholar
  57. Schwab-Stone, M. E., Ayers, T. S., Kasprow, W., Voyce, C., Barone, C., Shriver, T., et al. (1995). No safe haven: A study of violence exposure in an urban community. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34(10), 1343–1352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Schwab-Stone, M., Chuansheng, C., Greenberger, E., Silver, D., Lichtman, J., & Voyce, C. (1999). No safe haven II: The effects of violence exposure on urban youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(4), 359–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Schwartz, D. G., & Hopmeyer, A. (2003). Community violence exposure and children’s academic functioning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. J. (2000). Community violence exposure and children’s social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotion regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(4), 670–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Singer, M. I., Anglin, T. M., Song, L., & Lunghofer, L. (1995). Adolescents’ exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(6), 477–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Stein, B. D., Jaycox, L. H., Kataoka, S. H., Wong, M., Tu, W., Elliott, M. N., et al. (2003). A mental health intervention for schoolchildren exposed to violence: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290(5), 603–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stein, B. D., Kataoka, S. H., Jaycox, L. H., Steiger, E. M., Wong, M., Fink, A., et al. (2003). The mental health for immigrants program: Program design and participatory research in the real world. In M. D. Weist (Ed.), Handbook of school mental health: Advancing practice and research (Issues in clinical child psychology, pp. 179–190). New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.Google Scholar
  64. Stein, B. D., Kataoka, S. H., Jaycox, L. H., Wong, M., Fink, A., Escudero, P., et al. (2002). Theoretical basis and program design of a school-based mental health intervention for traumatized immigrant children: a collaborative research partnership. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 29(3), 318–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Stein, B. D., Zima, B. T., Elliott, M. N., Burnam, M. A., Shahinfar, A., Fox, N. A., et al. (2001). Violence exposure among school-age children in foster care: Relationship to distress symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(5), 588–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Stoiber, K. C., & Kratochwill, T. R. (2000). Empirically supported interventions and school psychology: Rationale and methodological issues–Part I. School Psychology Quarterly, 15(1), 75–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. R. (2006). A promising approach for expanding and sustaining school-wide positive behavior support. School Psychology Review, 35(2), 2450259.Google Scholar
  68. Turner, H. A., Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. (2010). The effects of adolescent victimization on self-concept and depressive symptoms. Child Maltreatment, 15(1), 76–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Walker, D. W. (2008). A school-based mental health service model for youth exposed to disasters: Project Fleur-de-lis. The Prevention Researcher, 15(3), 11–13.Google Scholar
  70. Wong, M. (2006). Commentary: Building partnerships between schools and academic partners to achieve a health-related research agenda. Ethnicity & Disease, 16(Suppl. 1), 149–153.Google Scholar
  71. Wong, M., Rosemond, M., Stein, B. D., Langley, A. K., Kataoka, S. H., & Nadeem, E. (2007). School-based intervention for adolescents exposed to violence. The Prevention Researcher, 14(1), 17–20.Google Scholar
  72. Wood, J. J., Lynne-Landsman, S. D., Langer, D. A., Wood, P. A., Clark, S. L., Mark Eddy, J., et al. (2012). School attendance problems and youth psychopathology: Structural cross-lagged regression models in three longitudinal data sets. Child Development, 83(1), 351–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Yule, W. (2001). Post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(3), 194–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Zinzow, H. M., Ruggiero, K. J., Resnick, H., Hanson, R., Smith, D., Saunders, B., et al. (2009). Prevalence and mental health correlates of witnessed parental and community violence in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(4), 441–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erum Nadeem
    • 1
  • Lisa H. Jaycox
    • 2
  • Audra K. Langley
    • 3
  • Marleen Wong
    • 4
  • Sheryl H. Kataoka
    • 3
  • Bradley D. Stein
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.RAND CorporationSanta MonicaUSA
  3. 3.University of CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.University of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations