Contemporary Events: 1953–1965

  • Joseph D. Robinson
Part of the People and Ideas Series book series (PEOPL)


While the experiments, analyses, formulations, and arguments described in the preceding chapters were underway, the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry were advancing at an accelerating pace. A few pertinent issues will be discussed here; parallel studies on oxidative phosphorylation will be covered in Chapter 16.


Oxygen Carrier Rockefeller Foundation Unit Membrane Accelerate Pace Preceding Chapter 
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Notes to Chapter 10

  1. 1.
    Robertson (1959, 1964).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Finean and Robertson (1958).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maddy (1966). Questions remained about what permanganate and osmium tetroxide actually labeled, however.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sjöstrand (1963); Green and Fleischer (1963).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luzzati and Huson (1962).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Maddy and Malcolm (1965). Their study, nevertheless, did not deal with native proteins. They measured infrared spectra of dried membranes and optical rotary dispersion of an extracted fraction.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stein and Danielli (1956).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neville (1960).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Emmelot et al. (1964). Antibody binding was to histological sections of liver cells.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See, for example, Takeuchi and Terayama (1965).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mueller et al. (1962). This preparation is often called a “black lipid membrane” from its optical interference when illuminated at an angle. To form films efficiently they added to their extracts substances like a-tocopherol. By modern calculations, 60–90 A is too thick for a bilayer, and there probably were inclusions between the layers.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bangham et al. (1965).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kendrew et al. (1958, 1960).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kendrew et al. (1958), p. 665.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perutz et al. (1960).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muirhead and Perutz (1963).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Perutz (1970).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blake et al. (1965); Johnson and Phillips (1965). Phillips had collaborated with Kendrew on myoglob in structure.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Koshland (1958). In 1957 Edna Kearney interpreted increases in enzyme activity by certain substances as activator-induced changes in protein “configuration.”Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Monod et al. (1963).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Monod et al. (1965).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Koshland et al. (1966).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    A. F. Huxley and Niedergerke ( 1964 ); H. Huxley and Hanson (1964). The Huxleys are not related, although both are British (as was Hanson).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kauzmann (1959); Tanford (1962). Perutz et al. (1965) stressed such interaction in determining the structure of hemoglobin.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Epstein et al. (1963). An alternative view imagined that templates assisted folding to complementary conformations.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Watson and Crick (1953).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    See Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Biol. 28, 1963.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rall et al. (1957); Sutherland and Rall (1958).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sutherland et al. (1965).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Krebs and Fischer (1956).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chronologies and statistics are from Bordley and Harvey (1976); Mushkin (1979); Strickland (1972); and NIH Factbook (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© American Physiological Society 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph D. Robinson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PharmacologyState University of New York Health Science CenterSyracuseUSA

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