Advertisement

Airway and Pulmonary Afferents and Reflexes: A Historical Survey

  • John Widdicombe
  • Giuseppe Sant’Ambrogio
Part of the People and Ideas book series (PEOPL)

Abstract

Breathing is thought to be critically dependent for its optimal performance on a variety of sensory feedbacks from multiple sources. This sensory information adjusts the functions of the respiratory controller to the continuously changing demands for gas exchange and other non-metabolic behavioral activities. The purpose of this chapter is to examine the historical development of our knowledge about the reflex control of breathing and related sensory information.

Keywords

Nasal Cavity Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Nasal Mucosa Airway Smooth Muscle Tracheobronchial Tree 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adrian E.D. Afferent impulses in the vagus and their effect on respiration. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 79: 332–358, 1933.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adrian E.D. and Y. Zotterman. The impulses produced by sensory nerve endings. Pt. 2. The response of a single end-organ. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 61: 151–171, 1926.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Adrian E.D. Olfactory reactions in the brain of the hedgehog. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 100: 459–473, 1942.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Adrian E.D. The Basis of Sensation. The Action of the Sense Organs. London: Christophers, 1928.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Aldaya F. Le controle réflexe de la respiration par la sensibilité du larynx. C. R. Soc. Biol. (Paris) 123: 1001–1002, 1942.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allen W.F. Effect on respiration, blood pressure and carotid pulse of various inhaled and insufflated vapors when stimulating one cranial nerve and various combinations of cranial nerves. III. Olfactory and trigeminal stimulation. Am. J. Physiol. 88: 117–129, 1929.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrew B.L. A functional analysis of the myelinated fibres of the superior laryngeal nerve of the rat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 133: 420–432, 1956.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barany R. Studien über den Niesreflex. Mschr. Ohrenheik. 47: 129–135, 1913.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell C. On the organs of the human voice. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 299–320, 1832.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bert P. Sur le prétendue period d’excitation de l’empoisonnement des animaux par le chloroforme ou par l’éther. C. r. hebd. Seanc. Acad. Sci., Paris 64: 622–625, 1867.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bert P. Des effets de l’excitation du nerf pneumogastrique, du nerf larynge superieur et du nerf nasal sur la respiration. Arch. de Physiol. Normale et Pathol. 12: 179–196, 1869.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boushey H.A., P.S. Richardson, J.G. Widdicombe, and J.C.M. Wise. The response of laryngeal afferent fibres to mechanical and chemical stimuli. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 240: 153–175, 1974.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brazier M.A.B. The Electrical Activity of the Nervous System. London: Pitman Medical Publishing Co., 1960.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Breuer J. Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung durch den Nervus Vagus. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 58: 909–937, 1868.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breuer J. and E. Hering., Die Selbststeuerung der Athmung Durch den Nervus Vagus. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 57: 672–677, 1868.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brubaker A.P., The physiology of sneezing. J. Amer. Med. Assoc. 73: 585–587, 1919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Budge J., Ueber den Einfluss der Reizung des N. Vagus auf das Athemholen. Arch. Pathol., Anat. Physiol., Klin. Med. 6: 433–463, 1859.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Casserius J., The larynx organ of voice (translated by M.H. Hast and E.B. Holtsmark). Acta Otolaryngol. Suppl. 261: 1–36, 1969.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Coleridge J.C.G. and H.M. Coleridge. Afferent vagal C-fiber innervation of the lungs and airways and its functional significance. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 99: 1110, 1984.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Coleridge H.M. and J. C.G. Coleridge. Reflexes evoked from the tracheobronchial tree and lungs. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: The Respiratory System, vol. II, Control of Breathing, edited by N.S. Cherniack and J.G. Widdicombe. Bethesda MD: American Physiological Society, 1986, pp. 395–429.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Comroe J.H. Jr. Physiology of Respiration, 2d ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers, 1974.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Daly M de B. Interactions between respiration and circulation. In: Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: The Respiratory System, vol. II Control of Breathing, edited by N.S. Cherniack and J.G. Widdicombe. Bethesda MD: American Physiological Society, 1986, pp. 529–594.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davies A., M. Dixon, D. Callanan, A. Huszczuk, J.G. Widdicombe, and J.C.M. Wise. Lung reflexes in rabbits during pulmonary stretch receptor block by sulphur dioxide. Respir. Physiol. 34: 83–101, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Davies A., and M. Roumy. The effect of transient stimulation of lung irritant receptors on the pattern of breathing in rabbits. J. Physiol. 324: 389–401, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dawson W. W. Chemical stimulation of the peripheral trigeminal nerve. Nature 196: 341–345, 1962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dogiel, cited by Kratschmer: Reichert’s Arch. 1866, p. 231.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    DuBois F.S. and J.O. Foley. Experimental studies on the vagus and spinal accessory nerves in the cat. Anat. Rec. 64: 285–307, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Einthoven W. On vagus currents examined with the string galvanometer. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 1: 243–245, 1908.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Euler C. v. Brain stem mechanisms for generation and control of breathing pattern. In: Handbook of Physiology, section 3: The Respiratory System, vol. II, Control of Breathing, edited by N. S. Cherniack and J. G. Widdicombe. Bethesda MD: American Physiological Society, 1986, pp. 1–67.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fabricius ab Aquapendente. De larynge vocis instrumento. In: De Visione, Voce, Auditu. Venice: Franciscum Bolzettam, 1600.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Falk, cited by Kratschmer: Reichert’s Arch. 1869, p. 239.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Faraday M. Notice of a means of preparing the organs of respiration, so as considerably to extend the time of holding the breath. London and Edinburgh Phil. Magazine and Journal Science, Series 3, 3: 241–244, 1833.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Flourens P. Reserches Expérimentales sur les Propriétés et les Fonctions du Système Nerveux, dan les Animaux Vertébrés. Paris: Crevot, 1824, pp. 168–202.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Franck F. Recherches expérimentales sur les effets cardiaques, vasculaires, et respiratoires des excitations douloureuses. C. r. hebd. Acad. Sci. 83: 1109–1111, 1876.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gad J. Die Regulierung der normalen Athmung. Anat. Physiol. 1–32, 1880.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glebovsky V. D, and A. V. Bayev. Stimulation of nasal cavity mucosal trigeminal receptors with respiratory airflows (Russian text). Sechenov. Physiol. J. U.S.S.R. 70: 1534 1541, 1984.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Guz A. Regulation of respiration in man. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 37: 303–323, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hall M. On the reflex function of the medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 123: 635–665, 1833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hall M. Lectures on the Nervous System and its Diseases. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hall M. Synopsis of the Diastaltic Nervous System. London: Joseph Mallett, 1850.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hall M. Aperçu du Systéme Spinale, ou de la Série des Actions Reflexes dans Leurs Applications à la Physiologie, à la Pathologie et Spécialement a l’Épilepsie. Paris: Masson, 1855.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hammouda M. and W. H. Wilson. Influences which affect the form of the respiratory cycle, in particular that of the expiratory phase. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 80: 261–284, 1933.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Head H. On the regulation of respiration. Part I. Experimental. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 10: 170, 1889a.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Head H. On the regulation of respiration. Part II. Theoretical. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 10: 279–290, 1889b.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hensel H. and Y. Zotterman. Quantitative Beziehungen zwis chen der Entladung einzelner Kältefasern und der Temperatur. Acta Physiol. Scand. 23: 291–319, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hering E. Ueber den Einfluss der Athmung auf den Kreislauf. 2. Mittheilung: Ueber eine reflektorische Beziehung zwischen Lunge und Herz. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien. 64: 333353, 1871.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hooke R. An account of an experiment made by M. Hook, of preserving animals alive by blowing through their lungs with bellows. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. 2: 539–540, 1667.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Homer R.L., J. E. Innes, K. Murphy, and A. Guz. Evidence for reflex upper airway dilator muscle activation by sudden negative airway pressure in man. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 436: 15–29, 1991.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Karlsson J.A., G. Sant’Ambrogio, and J.G. Widdicombe. Afferent neural pathways in cough and reflex bronchoconstriction. J. Appl. Physiol. 65: 1007–1023, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Keller C.J. and A. Loeser. Der zentripetale Lungenvagus. Z. Biol. 89: 373–395, 1929.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Knowlton G.C. and M.G. Larrabee. A unitary analysis of pulmonary volume receptors. Am. J. Physiol. 147: 100–114, 1946.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Korpas J. and Z. Tomori. Cough and other respiratory reflexes. Basel: S. Karger AG, 1979.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kratschmer F. Über Reflexe von der Nasenschleimhaut auf Athmung und Kreislauf. Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 62: 147–170, 1870.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Krauhs J.M. Morphology or presumptive slowly adapting receptors in dog trachea. Anat. Rec. 210: 73–85, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Larrabee M.G. and G.C. Knowlton. Excitation and inhibition of phrenic motoneurones by inflation of the lungs. Am. J. Physiol. 147: 90–99, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Legallois C.J.J. Experiments on the Principle of Life, and Particularly on the Principle of the Motions of the Heart, and on the Seat of this Principle, translated by N.C. and J.G. Nancrede. Philadelphia: M. Thomas, 1813.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lesky E. The Vienna Medical School of the 19th Century, translated by L. Williams and I. S. Levij, Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Longet F.-A. Anatomie et Physiologie du Système Nerveux de l’Homme et des Animaux Vertébrés, 2 vols. Paris: Fortin, Masson et Cie, 1842.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Lorry A.C. Sur les mouvements du cerveau. Second mêmoire. Sur les mouvements contre nature de ce viscère et sur les organes qui font le principe de son action. Mem. Math. Phys. Press Acad. R. Sci. Div. Say. (Strang), Paris, 3: 344–377, 1760.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Luciani L. Fisiologia dell’uomo. Vol. I. Milan: Società Editrice Libraria, 1904.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lumsden T. Observations on the respiratory centres in the cat. J. Physiol. 57: 153–160, 1923a.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Lumsden T. Observations on the respiratory centres. J. Physiol. 57: 354–367, 1923b.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lumsden T. The regulation of respiration. Part I. J. Physiol. 58: 81–91, 1923c.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lumsden T. The regulation of respiration. Part II. Normal type. J. Physiol. 58: 111–126, 1923d.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Magendie F. Le nerf olfactif est-il l’organ de l’odorat? Expèriences sur cette question. J. Physiol. Exp. Pathol. 4: 169–175, 1824.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Magendie F. Précis Elémentaire de Physiologie, vol. 1, 1816. English translation by E. Milligan. Edinburgh: John Carfrae and Son, 1826.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Malpighi M. Epistolae de Cerebro ac Lingua. Bologna, 1665.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Marckwald M. Die Athembewegungen und deren Innervation beim Kaninchen. Z. Biol. 23: 149–283, 1887.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marckwald M. The Movements of Respiration and their Innervation in the Rabbit. London: Blackie, 1888.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mathew O.P. and F. B. Sant’Ambrogio. Laryngeal reflexes. In: Respiratory Function of the Upper Airway, edited by O.P. Mathew, and G. Sant’Ambrogio. New York: Dekker, 1988, pp. 259–302.Google Scholar
  71. May M. T. Galen on the Usefulness of the Parts of the Body. (De usu partium). Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1968.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mayo H. Observations on the physiology of the larynx. Edin. Med. J. 12: 214–237, 1866.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Muller J. Elements of Physiology, vol. I, translated by W. Baly. London: Taylor and Walton, 1838.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nail B.S., G.M. Sterling, and J.G. Widdicombe. Epipharyngeal receptors responding to mechanical stimulation. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 204: 91–98, 1969.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Otis A.B. The work of breathing. In: Handbook of Physiology, section 3: Respiration, edited by W. O. Fenn, and H. Rahn. Washington, DC: American Physiological Society, 1964, pp. 463–476.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Paintal A.S. Impulses in vagal afferent fibres from specific pulmonary deflation receptors. The response of these receptors to phenyl diguanide, potato starch, 5-hydroxytryptamine and nicotine, and their role in respiratory and cardiovascular reflexes. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 40: 89–111, 1955.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Paintal A.S. Mechanism of stimulation of type J pulmonary receptors. J. Physiol. 203: 511–532, 1969.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Paintal A.S. Lung and airway receptors. In: Control of Respiration, edited by D.J. Pallot. London: Croom Helm, 1983, pp. 78–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Porter R., editor. Breathing: Hering-Breuer Centenary Symposium. London: J. and A. Churchill, 1970.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Reid J. An experimental investigation into the functions of the eighth pair of nerves, or the glossopharyngeal, pneumogastric and spinal accessory. Edin. Med. Surg. J. 49: 109176, 1838.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rosenthal J. Studien ueber Athemewegungen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. 456–477, 1864.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rosenthal J. Die Athembewegungen und ihre Beziehungen zum Nervus Vagus. Berlin: Hirschwald, 1862.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rosenthal J. Neue Studien uber Athembewegungen. Erster Artikel. Die Wirkung der elektrischen Vagusreizung auf die Athembewegungen. Arch. Anat. Physiol. 34–49, 1880.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sampson S. and C. Eyzaguirre. Some functional characteristics of mechanoreceptors in the larynx of the cat. J. Neurophysiol. 27: 464–480, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sant’Ambrogio G. Information arising from the tracheobronchial tree of mammals. Physiol. Rev. 62: 531–569, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Sant’Ambrogio, G., O.P. Mathew, J. T. Fisher, and F.B. Sant’Ambrogio. Laryngeal receptors responding to transmural pressure, airflow and local muscle activity. Respir. Physiol. 54: 317–330, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sekizawa S-I. and H. Tsubone. Nasal receptors responding to noxious chemical irritants. Respir. Physiol. 96: 37–48, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sellick H. and J.G. Widdicombe. Vagal deflation and inflation reflexes mediated by lung irritant receptors. Q. J. Exp. Physiol. 55: 153–163, 1970.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sherrington C.S. The integrative action of the nervous system. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons, 1906, pp. 11–411.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Smith E. S. Galen’s Account of the Cranial Nerves and the Autonomic Nervous System. Clio Medica, Part I (6:77–98) and Part II (6:173–194), 1971.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Storey A.T. A functional analysis of sensory units innervating epiglottis and larynx. Expl. Neurol. 20: 366–383, 1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Tatar M., S. E. Webber, and J.G. Widdicombe. Lung C-fibre receptor activation and defensive reflexes in anaesthetized cats. J. Physiol. 402: 411–420, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tsubone H. Nasal “pressure” receptors. Jpn. J. Vet. Sci. 52: 225–232, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tsubone H. Nasal “flow” receptors of the rat. Respir. Physiol. 75: 51–64, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Tucker D. Non-olfactory responses from the nasal cavity: Jacobson’s organ and the trigeminal system. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology, vol. IV: Chemical Senses, pt. I: Olfaction, edited by L.M. Beidler. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1971, pp. 151–181.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ullmann E. About Hering and Breuer. In: Breathing: Hering-Breuer Centenary Symposium, edited by R. Porter. London: J and A Churchill, 1970, pp. 2–15.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Van Lunteren E., W.B. Van de Graff, D.M. Parker, J. Mitra, M.A. Haxhiu, K. P. Strohl, and N. S. Cherniack. Nasal and laryngeal reflex responses to negative upper airway pressure. J. Appl. Physiol. 56: 746–752, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wallois F., J. M. Macron, V Jounieaux, and B. Duron. Trigeminal nasal receptors related to respiration and to various stimuli in cats. Respir. Physiol. 85: 111–125, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Widdicombe J.G. The site of pulmonary stretch receptors in the cat. J. Physiol. (Lond.) 125: 336–351, 1954.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Widdicombe J.G. Reflexes from the upper respiratory tract. In: Handbook of Physiology, section 3: The respiratory system, vol. II, Control of Breathing, edited by N.S. Cherniack and J.G. Widdicombe. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society, 1986, pp. 363–394.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Widdicombe J.G. Nervous receptors in the tracheobronchial tree: Airway smooth muscle reflexes. In: Airway Smooth Muscle in Health and Disease, edited by R.F. Coburn. New York: Plenum Press, 1989, pp. 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 101a.
    Widdicombe J.G. and J.A. Nadel. Airway volume, airway resistance, and work and force of breathing: theory. J. Appl. Physiol. 18: 863–868, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Widdicombe, J.G., G. Sant’Ambrogio G, and O.P. Mathew. Nervous receptors of the upper airway. In: Respiratory Function of the Upper Airway, edited by O.P. Mathew and G. Sant’Ambrogio. New York: Dekker, 1988, pp. 193–231.Google Scholar
  104. 103.
    Williams C.J.B. The Pathology and Diagnosis of Diseases of the Chest, 4th ed. London: Churchill, 1840.Google Scholar
  105. 104.
    Younes M.K. and J. E. Remmers. Control of tidal volume and respiratory frequency. In: Regulation of Breathing, edited by T.F. Hornbein. New York: Marcel Dekker, 1981, pp. 621–671.Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Zotterman Y. Action potentials in the glossopharyngeal nerve and in the chorda tympani. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 72: 73–77, 1935.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Zotterman Y. Specific action potentials in the lingual nerve of cat. Skand. Arch. Physiol. 75: 105–119, 1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Physiological Society 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Widdicombe
  • Giuseppe Sant’Ambrogio

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations