Formation and Differentiation of Leukocytes

  • Douglas E. Wright
  • Irving L. Weissman
Part of the Methods in Physiology Series book series (METHPHYS)

Abstract

Inflammatory responses often involve the selective accumulation in tissues of complex mixtures of leukocytes. In order to understand the processes governing migration and accumulation of mature leukocytes, it is useful to begin by considering the development of leukocytes in adult bone marrow, as well as the earliest migrations made by hematopoietic cells during prenatal development.

Keywords

Leukemia Melphalan Gall Neutropenia Cyclophosphamide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abrams, R. A., McCormack, K., Bowles, C., and Deisseroth, A. B. (1981) Cyclophosphamide treatment expands the circulating hematopoietic stem cell pool in dogs. J. Clin. Invest. 67: 1392–1399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aggeler, J., Kapp, L. N., Tseng, S. C., and Werb, Z. (1982) Regulation of protein secretion in Chinese hamster ovary cells by cell cycle position and cell density. Plasminogen activator, procollagen fibronectin. Exp. Cell. Res. 139: 275–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aguila, H. L., Akashi, K., Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., Lagasse, E., Mebius, R. E., Morrison, S. J., Shizuru, J., Strober, S., Uchida, N., Wright, D. E., and Weissman, I. L. (1997) From stem cells to lymphocytes: biology and transplantation. Immunol. Rev. 157: 13–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aiuti, A., Webb, I. J., Bleul, C., Springer, T., and Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C. (1997) The chemokine SDF-1 is a chemoattractant for human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells and provides a new mechanism to explain the mobilization of CD34+ progenitors to peripheral blood. J. Exp. Med. 185: 111–120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aizawa, S., and Tavassoli, M. (1988) Molecular basis of the recognition of intravenously transplanted hemopoietic cells by bone marrow. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 3180–3183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Akashi, K., Kondo, M., von Freeden-Jeffry, U., Murray, R., and Weissman, I. L. (1997) Bcl-2 rescues T lymphopoiesis in interleukin-7 receptor-deficient mice. Cell 89: 1033–1041.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akashi, K., Traver, D., Miyamoto, T., and Weissman, I. L. (2000) A clonogenic common myeloid progenitor that gives rise to all myeloid lineages. Nature 404: 193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alexander, W. S., Roberts, A. W., Nicola, N. A., Li, R., and Metcalf, D. (1996) Deficiencies in progenitor cells of multiple hematopoietic lineages and defective megakaryocytopoiesis in mice lacking the thrombopoietic receptor c-Mpl. Blood 87: 2162–2170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Andrews, R. G., Bensinger, W. I., Knitter, G. H., Bartelmez, S. H., Longin, K., Bernstein, I. D., Appelbaum, F. R., and Zsebo, K. M. (1992) The ligand for c-kit, stem cell factor, stimulates the circulation of cells that engraft lethally irradiated baboons. Blood 80: 2715 2720.Google Scholar
  10. Antica, M., Wu, L., Shortman, K., and Scollay, R. (1994) Thymic stem cells in mouse bone marrow. Blood 84: 111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Appelbaum, F. R. (1979) Hemopoietic reconstitution following autologous bone marrow and peripheral blood mononuclear cell infusions. Exp. Hematol. 7 (suppl. 5): 7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Arbones, M. L., Ord, D. C., Ley, K., Ratech, H., Maynard-Curry, C., Otten, G., Capon, D. J., and Tedder, T. F. (1994) Lymphocyte homing and leukocyte rolling and migration are impaired in L-selectin—deficient mice. Immun. 1: 247–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Arroyo, A. G., Yang, J. T., Rayburn, H., and Hynes, R. O. (1996) Differential requirements for alpha4 integrins during fetal and adult hematopoiesis. Cell 85: 997–1008.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashihara, E., Shimazaki, C., Sudo, Y., Kikuta, T., Hirai, H., Sumikuma, T., Yamagata, N., Goto, H., Inaba, T., Fujita, N., and Nakagawa, M. (1998) FLT-3 ligand mobilizes hematopoietic primitive and committed progenitor cells into blood in mice. Eur. J. Haematol. 60: 86–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bartley, T. D., Bogenberger, J., Hunt, P., Li, Y. S., Lu, H. S., Martin, F., Chang, M. S., Samal, B., Nichol, J. L., Swift, S., et al. (1994) Identification and cloning of a megakaryocyte growth and development factor that is a ligand for the cytokine receptor Mpl. Cell 77: 1117–1124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Becker, A. J., McCulloch, E. A., and Till, J. E. (1963) Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells. Nature 197: 452454.Google Scholar
  17. Berlin, C., Bargatze, R. F., Campbell, J. J., von Andrian, U. H., Szabo, M. C., Hasslen, S. R., Nelson, R. D., Berg, E. L., Erlandsen, S. L., and Butcher, E. C. (1995) Alpha 4 integrins mediate lymphocyte attachment and rolling under physiologic flow. Cell 80: 413–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Berman, C. L., Yeo, E. L., Wencel-Drake, J. D., Furie, B. C., Ginsberg, M. H., and Furie, B. (1986) A platelet alpha granule membrane protein that is associated with the plasma membrane after activation: Characterization and subcellular localization of platelet activation-dependent granule-external membrane protein. J. Clin. Invest. 78: 130–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bevilacqua, M. P., Pober, J. S., Mendrick, D. L., Cotran, R. S., and Gimbrone, M. A. Jr. (1987) Identification of an inducible endothelial—leukocyte adhesion molecule. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84: 9238–9242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bevilacqua, M. P., Stengelin, S., Gimbrone, M. A. Jr., and Seed, B. (1989) Endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1: an inducible receptor for neutrophils related to complement regulatory proteins and lectins. Science 243: 1160–1165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bleul, C. C., Fuhlbrigge, R. C., Casasnovas, J. M., Aiuti, A., and Springer, T. A. (1996) A highly efficacious lymphocyte chemoattractant, stromal cell-derived factor I (SDF-1). J. Exp. Med. 184: 1101–1109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bodine, D., Seidel, N. E., and Orlic, D. (1996) Bone marrow collected 14 days after administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor to mice has 10-fold more repopulating ability than untreated bone marrow. Blood 88: 89–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bradford, G. B., Williams, B., Rossi, R., and Bertoncello, I. (1997) Quiescence, Cycling, and turnover in the primitive hematopoietic stem cell compartment. Exp. Hematol. 25: 445–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brannan, C. I., Lyman, S. D., Williams, D. E., Eisenman, J., Anderson, D. M., Cosman, D., Bedell, M. A., Jenkins, N. A., and Copeland, N. G. (1991) Steel—Dickie mutation encodes a c-Kit ligand lacking transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 46714674.Google Scholar
  25. Brecher, G., Ansell, J. D., Micklem, H. S., Tjio, J. H., and Cronkite, E. P. (1982) Special proliferative sites are not needed for seeding and proliferation of transfused bone marrow cells in normal syngeneic mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5085–5087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Brugger, W., Bross, K., Frisch, J., Dem, P., Weber, B., Mertelsmann, R., and Kanz, L. (1992) Mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by sequential administration of interleukin3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor following polychemotherapy with etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin. Blood 79: 1193–2000.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bullard, D. C., Kunkel, E. J., Kubo, H., Hicks, M.J., Lorenzo, I., Doyle, N. A., Doerschuk, C. M., Ley, K., and Beaudet, A. L. (1996) Infectious susceptibility and severe deficiency of leukocyte rolling and recruitment in E-selectin and P-selectin double mutant mice. J. Exp. Med. 183: 2329–2336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Butcher, E. C. (1991) Leukocyte—endothelial cell recognition: three (or more) steps to specificity and diversity. Cell 67: 1033–1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Butcher, E. C. (1992) Leukocyte—endothelial cell adhesion as an active, multi-step process: a combinatorial mechanism for specificity and diversity in leukocyte targeting. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 323: 181–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Campbell, J. J., Hedrick, J., Zlotnik, A., Siani, M. A., Thompson, D. A., and Butcher, E. C. (1998) Chemokines and the arrest of lymphocytes rolling under flow conditions. Science 279: 38 1384.Google Scholar
  31. Capel, B., Hawley, R., Covarrubias, L., Hawley, T., and Mintz, B. (1989) Clonal contributions of small numbers of retrovirally marked hematopoietic stem cells engrafted in unirradiated neonatal W/W° mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:4564–4568. [Published erratum appears in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1989, 86 (18): 7048]Google Scholar
  32. Carpenter, K. L., and Turpen, J. B. (1979) Experimental studies on hemopoiesis in the pronephros of Rana pipiens. Differ. 14: 167–174.Google Scholar
  33. Carver-Moore, K., Broxmeyer, H. E., Luoh, S. M., Cooper, S., Peng, J., Burstein, S. A., Moore, M. W., and de Sauvage, F. J. (1996) Low levels of erythroid and myeloid progenitors in thrombopoietin-and c-Mpl—deficient mice. Blood 88: 803–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Cavins, J. A., Scheer, S. C., Thomas, E. D., and Ferrebee, J. W. (1964) The recovery of lethally irradiated dogs given infusions of autologous leulocytes preserved at —80°. Blood 23: 38–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Chabot, B., Stephenson, D. A., Chapman, V. M., Besmer, P., and Bernstein, A. (1988) The proto-oncogene c-Kit encoding a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor maps to the mouse W locus. Nature 335: 88–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chamberlain, J. K., Leblond, P. F., and Weed, R. I. (1975a) Reduction of adventitial cell cover: An early direct effect of erythropoietin on bone marrow ultrastructure. Blood Cells 1: 655–674.Google Scholar
  37. Chamberlain, J. K., Weiss, L., and Weed, R. I. (1975b) Bone marrow sinus cell packing: a determinant of cell release. Blood 46: 91–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Chen, J., Lansford, R., Stewart, V., Young, F., and Alt, F. W. (1993) RAG-2—deficient blastocyst complementation: an assay of gene function in lymphocyte development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 4528–4532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Cheshier, S. H., Morrison, S. J., Liao, X., and Weissman, I. L. (1999) In vivo proliferation and cell cycle kinetics of long-term self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 3120–3125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chiu, R. K., Droll, A., Cooper, D. L., Dougherty, S. T., Dirks, J. F., and Dougherty, G. J. (1995) Molecular mechanisms regulating the hyaluronan binding activity of the adhesion protein CD44. _ j. NeurooncoL 26: 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Clark, E. A., and Brugge, J. S. (1995) Integrins and signal transduction pathways: the road taken. Science 268: 233–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Copeland, N. G., Gilbert, D. J., Cho, B. C., Donovan, P. J., Jenkins, N. A., Cosman, D., Anderson, D., Lyman, S. D., and Williams, D. E. (1990) Mast cell growth factor maps near the steel locus on mouse chromosome 10 and is deleted in a number of steel alleles. Cell 63: 175–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cumano, A., Paige, C. J., Iscove, N. N., and Brady, G. (1992) Bipotential precursors of B cells and macrophages in murine fetal liver. Nature 356: 612–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Cumano, A., Kee, B. L., Ramsden, D. A., Marshall, A., Paige, C. J., and Wu, G. E. (1994) Development of B lymphocytes from lymphoid committed and uncommitted progenitors. Immunol. Rev. 137: 5–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. de Haan, G., and Van Zant, G. (1997) Intrinsic and extrinsic control of hemopoietic stem cell numbers: mapping of a stem cell gene. J. Exp. Med. 186: 529–536.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Delassus, S., and Cumano, A. (1996) Circulation of hematopoietic progenitors in the mouse embryo. Immun. 4: 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Dercksen, M. W., Gerritsen, W. R., Rodenhuis, S., Dirkson, M. K., Slaper-Cortenbach, I. C., Schaasberg, W. P., Pinedo, H. M., von dem Borne, A. E., and van der Schoot, C. E. (1995) Expression of adhesion molecules on CD34+ cells: CD34+ L-selectin+ cells predict a rapid platelet recovery after peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Blood 85: 3313–3319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. de Revel, T., Appelbaum, F. R., Storb, R., Schuening, F., Nash, R., Deeg, J., McNiece, I., Andrews, R., and Graham, T. (1994) Effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor, alone and in combination, on the mobilization of peripheral blood cells that engraft lethally irradiated dogs. Blood 83: 3795–3799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. de Sauvage, F. J., Hass, P. E., Spencer, S. D., Malloy, B. E., Gurney, A. L., Spencer, S. A., Dar-bonne, W. C., Henzel, W. J., Wong, S. C., Kuang, W. J., et al. (1994) Stimulation of megakaryocytopoiesis and thrombopoiesis by the c-Mpl ligand [see comments]. Nature 369: 533–538.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dexter, T. M., Simmons, P., Purnell, R. A., Spooncer, E., and Schofield, R. (1984) The regulation of hemopoietic cell development by the stromal cell environment and diffusible regulatory molecules. Prog. Clin. Biol. Res. 148: 13–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Dieterlen-Lievre, F. (1975) On the origin of haemopoietic stem cells in the avian embryo: an experimental approach. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 33: 607–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Dieterlen-Lievre, F., and Martin, C. (1981) Diffuse intraembryonic hemopoiesis in normal and chimeric avian development. Dev. Biol. 88: 180–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Domen, J., Gandy, K. L., and Weissman, I. L. (1998) Systemic overexpression of BCL-2 in the hematopoietic system protects transgenic mice from the consequences of lethal irradiation. Blood 91: 2272–2282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Domen, J., Cheshier, S. H., and Weissman, I. L. (2000) The role of apoptosis in the regulation of hematopoietic stem cells; overexpression of BCL-2 increases both their number and repopulation potential. J. Exp. Med. 191: 253–264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Dranoff, G., Crawford, A. D., Sadelain, M., Ream, B., Rashid, A., Bronson, R. T., Dickersin, G. R., Bachurski, C. J., Mark, E. L.; Whitsett, J. A., et al. (1994) Involvement of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in pulmonary homeostasis. Science 264: 713–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Dunn, L. C. (1937) Studies on spotting patterns. II. Genetic analysis of variegated spotting in the house mouse. Genetics 22: 43–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Dustin, M. L., and Springer, T. A. (1989) T-cell receptor cross-linking transiently stimulates adhesiveness through LFA-1. Nature 341: 619–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Elices, M. J., Osborn, L., Takada, Y., Crouse, C., Luhowskyj, S., Hemler, M. E., and Lobb, R. R. (1990) VCAM-1 on activated endothelium interacts with the leukocyte integrin VLA-4 at a site distinct from the VLA-4/fibronectin binding site. Cell 60: 577–584.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Evangelista, V., Manarini, S., Sideri, R., Rotondo, S., Martelli, N., Piccoli, A., Totani, L., Piccardoni, P., Vestweber, D., de Gaetano, G., and Cerletti, C. (1999) Platelet/polymorphonuclear leukocyte interaction: P-selectin triggers protein-tyrosine phosphorylation-dependent CD11b/CD18 adhesion: role of PSGL-1 as a signaling molecule. Blood 93: 876–885.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Fibbe, W. E., Hamilton, M. S., Laterveer, L. L., Kibbelaar, R. E., Falkenburg, J. H., Visser, J. W., and Willemze, R. (1992) Sustained engraftment of mice transplanted with IL-1—primed blood-derived stem cells. J. Immunol. 148: 417 21.Google Scholar
  61. Fixe, P., and Praloran, V. (1998) M-CSF: haematopoietic growth factor or inflammatory cytokine? Cytokine 10: 32–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Flanagan, J. G., Chan, D. C., and Leder, P. (1991) Transmembrane form of the kit ligand growth factor is determined by alternative splicing and is missing in the Sld mutant. Cell 64: 10251035.Google Scholar
  63. Fleischman, R. A., Custer, R. P., and Mintz, B. (1982) Totipotent hematopoietic stem cells: normal self-renewal and differentiation after transplantation between mouse fetuses. Cell 30: 351359.Google Scholar
  64. Fleming, W. H., Alpern, E. J., Uchida, N., Ikuta, K., Spangrude, G.J., and Weissman, I. L. (1993a) Functional heterogeneity is associated with the cell cycle status of murine hematopoietic stem cells. J Cell. Biol. 122: 897–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fleming, W. H., Alpern, E. J., Uchida, N., Ikuta, K., and Weissman, I. L. (1993b) Steel factor influences the distribution and activity of murine hematopoietic stem cells in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 3760–3764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Foxman, E. F., Campbell, J. J., and Butcher, E. C. (1997) Multistep navigation and the combinatorial control of leukocyte chemotaxis. J. Cell. Biot 139: 1349–1360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Frenette, P. S., Mayadas, T. N., Rayburn, H., Hynes, R. O., and Wagner, D. D. (1996) Susceptibility to infection and altered hematopoiesis in mice deficient in both P- and E-selectins. Cell 84: 563–574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Frenette, P. S., Subbarao, S., Mazo, I. B., von Andrian, U. H., and Wagner, D. D. (1998) Endothelial selectins and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 promote hematopoietic progenitor homing to bone marrow [see comments]. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 14423–14428.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Gallatin, W. M., Weissman, I. L., and Butcher, E. C. (1983) A cell-surface molecule involved in organ-specific homing of lymphocytes. Nature 304: 30–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Geissler, E. N., Ryan, M. A., and Housman, D. E. (1988) The dominant-white spotting (W) locus of the mouse encodes the c-Kit proto-oncogene. Cell 55: 185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Geissler, K., Peschel, C., Niederwieser, D., Strobl, H., Goldschmitt, J., Ohler, L., Bettelheim, P., Kahls, P., Huber, C., Lechner, K., Hocker, P., and Kolbe, K. (1996) Potentiation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced mobilization of circulating progenitor cells by seven-day pretreatment with interleukin-3. Blood 87: 2732–2739.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gianni, A. M., Siena, S., Bregni, M., Tarella, C., Stern, A. C., Pileri, A., and Bonadonna, G. (1989) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor to harvest circulating haemopoietic stem cells for autotransplantation. Lancet 2: 580–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Godin, I., Garcia-Porrero, J. A., Dieterlen-Lievre, F., and Cumano, A. (1999) Stem cell emergence and hemopoietic activity are incompatible in mouse intraembryonic sites. J. Exp. Med. 190: 43–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gratwohl, A., Baldomero, H., John, L., Gimmi, C., Pless, M., Tichelli, A., Nissen, C., Filipowicz, A., and Speck, B. (1995) Transplantation of G-CSF mobilized allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells in rabbits. Bone Marrow Transplant 16: 63–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Green, E. L. (1966) Biology of the laboratory mouse. New York: McGraw-Hill, p. 706.Google Scholar
  76. Gruneberg, H. (1942) Inhereted macrocytic anemias in the house mouse. II. Dominance relationships. j Genetics 43: 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Grzegorzewski, K. J., Komschlies, K. L., Jacobsen, S. E., Ruscetti, F. W., Keller, J. R., and Wiltrout, R. H. (1995) Mobilization of long-term reconstituting hematopoietic stem cells in mice by recombinant human interleukin 7.j Exp. Med. 181: 369–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Habibian, H. K., Peters, S. O., Hsieh, C. C., Wuu, J., Vergilis, K., Grimaldi, C. I., Reilly, J., Carlson, J. E., Frimberger, A. E., Stewart, F. M., and Quesenberry, P.J. (1998) The fluctuating phenotype of the lymphohematopoietic stem cell with cell cycle transit. J. Exp. Med. 188: 393–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hamann, A., Andrew, D. P., Jablonski-Westrich, D., Holzmann, B., and Butcher, E. C. (1994) Role of alpha 4-integrins in lymphocyte homing to mucosal tissues in vivo. J. Immunol. 152: 3282–3293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Harrison, D. E., and Zhong, R. K. (1992) The same exhaustible multilineage precursor produces both myeloid and lymphoid cells as early as 3–4 weeks after marrow transplantation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 10134–10138.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Harrison, D. E., Zsebo, K. M., and Astle, C. M. (1994) Splenic primitive hematopoietic stem cell (PHSC) activity is enhanced by steel factor because of PHSC proliferation. Blood 83: 3146–3151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Hirayama, F., Lyman, S. D., Clark, S. C., and Ogawa, M. (1995) The flt3 ligand supports proliferation of lymphohematopoietic progenitors and early B-lymphoid progenitors. Blood 85: 1762–1768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Hirsch, E., Iglesias, A., Potocnik, A. J., Hartmann, U., and Fassler, R. (1996) Impaired migration but not differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells in the absence of beta-1 integrins. Nature 380: 171–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Holzmann, B., McIntyre, B. W., and Weissman, I. L. (1989) Identification of a murine Peyer’s patch-specific lymphocyte homing receptor as an integrin molecule with an alpha chain homologous to human VLA-4 alpha. Cell 56: 37–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Horst, E., Meijer, C. J., Radaskiewicz, T., van Dongen, J. J., Pieters, R., Figdor, C. G., Hooftman, A., and Pals, S. T. (1990) Expression of a human homing receptor (CD44) in lymphoid malignancies and related stages of lymphoid development. Leukemia 4: 383–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Huang, E., Nocka, K., Beier, D. R., Chu, T.Y., Buck, J., Lahm, H. W., Wellner, D., Leder, P., and Besmer, P. (1990) The hematopoietic growth factor KL is encoded by the S1 locus and is the ligand of the c-Kit receptor, the gene product of the W locus. Cell 63: 225–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Huang, E. J., Nocka, K. H., Buck, J., and Besmer, P. (1992) Differential expression and processing of two cell associated forms of the kit-ligand: KL-1 and KL-2. Mol. Biol. Cell. 3: 349–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Huang, H., and Auerbach, R. (1993) Identification and characterization of hematopoietic stem cells from the yolk sac of the early mouse embryo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10110–10114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Huhn, R. D., Yurkow, E. J., Tushinski, R., Clarke, L., Sturgill, M. G., Hoffman, R., Sheay, W., Cody, R., Philipp, C., Resta, D., and George, M. (1996) Recombinant human interleukin-3 (rhIL-3) enhances the mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells by recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhGCSF) in normal volunteers. Exp. Hematol. 24: 839–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Ikuta, K., and Weissman, I. L. (1992) Evidence that hematopoietic stem cells express mouse skit but do not depend on steel factor for their generation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89: 1502–1506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Jackson, J. D., Yan, Y., Brunda, M. J., Kelsey, L. S., and Talmadge, J. E. (1995) Interleukin-12 enhances peripheral hematopoiesis in vivo. Blood 85: 2371–2376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Jacobsen, K., Kravitz, J., Kincade, P. W., and Osmond, D. G. (1996) Adhesion receptors on bone marrow stromal cells: in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by reticular cells and sinusoidal endothelium in normal and gamma-irradiated mice. Blood 87: 73–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Jacobsen, S. E., Okkenhaug, C., Myklebust, J., Veiby, O. P., and Lyman, S. D. (1995) The FLT3 ligand potently and directly stimulates the growth and expansion of primitive murine bone marrow progenitor cells in vitro: synergistic interactions with interleukin (IL) 11, IL-12, and other hematopoietic growth factors. J. Exp. Med. 181: 1357–1363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jalkanen, S., and Jalkanen, M. (1992) Lymphocyte CD44 binds the COOH-terminal heparin-binding domain of fibronectin. J. Cell. Biol. 116: 817–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Jones, R. J., Wagner, J. E., Celano, P., Zicha, M. S., and Sharkis, S. J. (1990) Separation of plu- ripotent haematopoietic stem cells from spleen colony-forming cells. Nature 347: 188–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Jones, R., Collector, M., Barber, J., Vala, M., Fackler, M., May, W., Griffin, C., Hawkins, A., Zehnbauer, B., Hilton, J., Colvin, O., and Sharkis, S. (1996) Characterization of mouse lymphohematopoietic stem cells lacking spleen colony-forming activity. Blood 88: 487–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Jordan, C. T., and Lemischka, I. R. (1990) Clonal and systemic analysis of long-term hematopoiesis in the mouse. Genes Den. 4: 220–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Juttner, C. A., To, L. B., Haylock, D. N., Branford, A., and Kimber, R. J. (1985) Circulating autologous stem cells collected in very early remission from acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia produce prompt but incomplete haemopoietic reconstitution after high dose melphalan or supralethal chemoradiotherapy. Br. J. Haematol. 61: 739–745.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kansas, G. S., Muirhead, M. J., and Dailey, M. O. (1990) Expression of the CD11/CD18, leukocyte adhesion molecule 1, and CD44 adhesion molecules during normal myeloid and erythroid differentiation in humans. Blood 76: 2483–2492.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kapur, R., Majumdar, M., Xiao, X., McAndrews-Hill, M., Schindler, K., and Williams, D. A. (1998) Signaling through the interaction of membrane-restricted stem cell factor and c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase: genetic evidence for a differential role in erythropoiesis. Blood 91: 879–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Kaushansky, K., Lok, S., Holly, R. D., Broudy, V. C., Lin, N., Bailey, M. C., Forstrom, J. W., Buddle, M. M., Oort, P. J., Hagen, F. S., et al. (1994) Promotion of megakaryocyte progenitor expansion and differentiation by the c-Mpl ligand thrombopoietin [see comments]. Nature 369: 568–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kawabata, K., Ujikawa, M., Egawa, T., Kawamoto, H., Tachibana, K., Iizasa, H., Katsura, Y., Kishimoto, T., and Nagasawa, T. (1999) A cell-autonomous requirement for CXCR4 in long-term lymphoid and myeloid reconstitution. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 5663–5667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Kay, H. E. M. (1965) How many cell generations? Lancet 2: 418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Kimura, S., Roberts, A. W., Metcalf, D., and Alexander, W. S. (1998) Hematopoietic stem cell deficiencies in mice lacking c-Mpl, the receptor for thrombopoietin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 1195–2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Kitamura, T., Sato, N., Arai, K., and Miyajima, A. (1991) Expression cloning of the human IL-3 receptor cDNA reveals a shared beta subunit for the human IL-3 and GM-CSF receptors. Cell 66: 1165–1174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Kondo, M., Weissman, I. L., and Akashi, K. (1997) Identification of clonogenic common lymphoid progenitors in mouse bone marrow. Cell 91: 661–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Labow, M. A., Norton, C. R., Rumberger, J. M., Lombard-Gillooly, K. M., Shuster, D. J., Hubbard, J., Bertko, R., Knaack, P. A., Terry, R. W., Harbison, M. L., et al. (1994) Characterization of E-selectin—deficient mice: demonstration of overlapping function of the endothelial selectins. Immun. 1: 709–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Lacombe, C., and Mayeux, P. (1998) Biology of erythropoietin. Haematologica 83: 724–732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lagasse, E., and Weissman, I. L. (1994) Bc1–2 inhibits apoptosis of neutrophils but not their engulfment by macrophages. J. Exp. Med. 179: 1047–1052.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Lagasse, E., and Weissman, I. (1997) Enforced expression of Bel-2 in monocytes rescues macrophages and partially reverses osteopetrosis in op/op mice. Cell 89: 1021–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lasky, L. A., Singer, M. S., Yednock, T. A., Dowbenko, D., Fennie, C., Rodriguez, H., Nguyen, T., Stachel, S., and Rosen, S. D. (1989) Cloning of a lymphocyte homing receptor reveals a lectin domain. Cell 56: 1045–1055.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lasky, L. A. (1992) Selectins: interpreters of cell-specific carbohydrate information during inflammation. Science 258: 964–969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Laterveer, L., Lindley, I. J., Hamilton, M. S., Willemze, R., and Fibbe, W. E. (1995) Interleukin8 induces rapid mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells with radioprotective capacity and long-term myelolymphoid repopulating ability. Blood 85: 2269–2275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Laterveer, L., Lindley, I.J., Heemskerk, D. P., Camps, J. A., Pauwels, E. K., Willemze, R., and Fibbe, W. E. (1996) Rapid mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells in rhesus monkeys by a single intravenous injection of interleukin-8. Blood 87: 781–788.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Lemischka, I. R., Raulet, D. H., and Mulligan, R. C. (1986) Development potential and dynamic behavior of hematopoietic stem cells. Cell 45: 917–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lesley, J., Hyman, R., and Kincade, P. W. (1993) CD44 and its interaction with extracellular matrix. Ado. Immunol. 54: 271–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Levesque, J. P., Zannettino, A. C., Pudney, M., Niutta, S., Haylock, D. N., Snapp, K. R., Kansas, G. S., Berndt, M. C., and Simmons, P. J. (1999) PSGL-1—mediated adhension of human hematopoietic progenitors to P-selectin results in suppression of hematopoiesis. Immun. 11: 369378.Google Scholar
  118. Lewinsohn, D. M., Nagler, A., Ginzton, N., Greenberg, P., and Butcher, E. C. (1990) Hematopoietic progenitor cell expression of the H-CAM (CD44) homing-associated adhesion molecule. Blood 75: 589–595.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Ley, K., Tedder, T. F., and Kansas, G. S. (1993) L-selectin can mediate leukocyte rolling in un- treated mesenteric venules in vivo independent of E- or P-selectin. Blood 82; 1632–1638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Ley, K., Bullard, D. C., Arbones, M. L., Bosse, R., Vestweber, D., Tedder, T. F., and Beaudet, A. L. (1995) Sequential contribution of L- and P-selectin to leukocyte rolling in vivo. J. Exp. Med. 181: 669–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Li, C. L., and Johnson, G. R. (1992) Rhodamine-123 reveals heterogeneity within murine Lin-, Sca-1+ hemopoietic stem cells. J. Exp. Med. 175: 1443–1447.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Lichtman, M. A. (1981) The ultrastructure of the hemopoietic environment of the marrow: a review. Exp. Hematol. 9: 391–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lieschke, G. J., Grail, D., Hodgson, G., Metcalf, D., Stanley, E., Cheers, C., Fowler, K. J., Basu, S., Zhan, Y. F., and Dunn, A. R. (1994) Mice lacking granulocyte colony-stimulating factor have chronic neutropenia, granulocyte and macrophage progenitor cell deficiency, and impaired neutrophil mobilization. Blood 84: 1737–1746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Liu, D., Liu, T., Li, R., and Sy, M. S. (1998) Mechanisms regulating the binding activity of CD44 to hyaluronic acid. Front. Biosci. 3: D631 - D636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Liu, F., Poursine-Laurent, J., and Link, D. C. (1997) The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor is required for the mobilization of murine hematopoietic progenitors into peripheral blood by cyclophosphamide or interleukin-8 but not flt-3 ligand. Blood 90: 2522–2528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Lok, S., Kaushansky, K., Holly, R. D., Kuijper, J. L., Lofton-Day, C. E., Oort, P. J., Grant, F. J., Heipel, M. D., Burkhead, S. K., Kramer, J. M., et al. (1994) Cloning and expression of murine thrombopoietin cDNA and stimulation of platelet production in vivo. Nature 369: 565–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Lord, B. I., Woolford, L. B., Wood, L. M., Czaplewski. L. G., McCourt, M., Hunter, M. G., and Edwards, R. M. (1995) Mobilization of early hematopoietic progenitor cells with BB-10010:a genetically engineered variant of human macrophage inflammatory protein-I alpha. Blood 85: 3412–3415.Google Scholar
  128. Luens, K. M., Travis, M. A., Chen, B. P., Hill, B. L., Scollay, R., and Murray, L. J. (1998) Thrombopoietin, kit ligand, and flk2/flt3 ligand together induce increased numbers of primitive hematopoietic progenitors from human CD34+ Thy-1 +Lin—cells with preserved ability to engraft SCID-hu bone. Blood 91: 1206–1215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Lyman, S. D., and Jacobsen, S. E. (1998) C-Kit ligand and Flt3 ligand: stem/progenitor cell factors with overlapping yet distinct activities. Blood 91: 1101–1134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Ma, Q., Jones, D., Borghesani, P. R., Segal, R. A., Nagasawa, T., Kishimoto, T., Bronson, R. T., and Springer, T. A. (1998) Impaired B-Iymphopoiesis, myelopoiesis, and derailed cerebellar neuron migration in CXCR4- and SDF-1—deficient mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95: 9448–9453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ma, Q., Jones, D., and Springer, T. A. (1999) The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is required for the retention of B lineage and granulocytic precursors within the bone marrow microenvironment. Immun. 10: 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mackarehtschian, K., Hardin, J. D., Moore, K. A., Boast, S., Goff, S. P., and Lemischka, I. R. (1995) Targeted disruption of the flk2/flk3 gene leads to deficiencies in primitive hematopoietic progenitors. Immun. 3: 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Marshall, E., Woolford, L. B., and Lord, B. I. (1997). Continuous infusion of macrophage inflammatory protein MIP-1 alpha enhances leucocyte recovery and haemopoietic progenitor cell mobilization after cyclophosphamide. Br. J. Cancer. 75: 1715–1720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Matthews, W., Jordan, C. T., Wiegand, G. W., Pardoll, D., and Lemischka, I. R. (1991) A receptor tyrosine kinase specific to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell-enriched populations. Cell 65: 1143–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mauch, P., Lamont, C., Neben, T. Y., Quinto, C., Goldman, S. J., and Witsell, A. (1995) Hematopoietic stem cells in the blood after stem cells factor and interleukin-11 administration: evidence for different mechanisms of mobilization. Blood 86: 4674–4680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mayadas, T. N., Johnson, R. C., Rayburn, H., Hynes, R. O., and Wagner, D. D. (1993) Leukocyte rolling and extravasation are severely compromised in P-selectin—deficient mice. Cell 74: 541–554.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Maw, I. B., Gutierrez-Ramos, J. C., Frenette, P. S., Hynes, R. O., Wagner, D. D., and von Andrian, U. H. (1998) Hematopoietic progenitor cell rolling in bone marrow microvessels: parallel contributions by endothelial selectins and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. J. Exp. Med. 188: 465–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. McCulloch, E. A., Siminovitch, J., and Till, J. E. (1964) Spleen-colony formation in anemic mice of genotype W/W,. Science 144: 844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. McCulloch, E. A., Siminovitch, L., Till, J. E., Russell, E. S., and Bernstein, S. E. (1965) The cellular basis of the genetically determined hemopoietic defect in anemic mice of genotype SISld. Blood 26: 399–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. McEver, R. P., Beckstead, J. H., Moore, K. L., Marshall-Carlson, L., and Bainton, D. F. (1989) GMP-140, a platelet alpha-granule membrane protein, is also synthesized by vascular endothelial cells and is localized in Weibel—Palade bodies. J. Clin. Invest. 84: 92–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. McNiece, I. K., Briddell, R. A., Hartley, C. A., Smith, K. A., and Andrews, R. G. (1993) Stem cell factor enhances in vivo effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for stimulating mobilization of peripheral blood progenitor cells. Stem Cells (Dayt) 11 (suppl 2): 36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Mebius, R. E., Streeter, P. R., Michie, S., Butcher, E. C., and Weissman, I. L. (1996) A developmental switch in lymphocyte homing receptor and endothelial vascular addressin expression regulates lymphocyte homing and permits CD4, CD3_ cells to colonize lymph nodes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 11019–11024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Medvinsky, A., and Dzierzak, E. (1996) Definitive hematopoiesis is autonomously initiated by the AGM region. Cell 86: 897–906.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Metcalf, D. (1988). The molecular control of blood cells. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Metcalf, D. (1993) Hematopoietic regulators: redundancy or subtlety? Blood 82: 3515–3523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Micklem, H. S., Clarke, C. M., Evans, E. P., and Ford, C. E. (1968) Fate of chromosome-marked mouse bone marrow cells transfused into normal syngeneic recipients. Transplantation 6: 299–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Micklem, H. S., Ford, C. E., Evans, E. P., Ogden, D. A., and Papworth, D. S. (1972) Competitive in vivo proliferation of foetal and adult haematopoietic cells in lethally irradiated mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 79: 293–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Minguell, J. J., Hardy, C., and Tavassoli, M. (1992) Membrane-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and fibronectin mediate the binding of hemopoietic progenitor cells to stromal cells. Exp. Cell. Res. 201: 200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Mintz, B., and Russell, E. S. (1957) Gene-induced embryological modifications of primordial germ cells in the mouse. J. Exp. Zool 134: 207–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Miyake, K., Medina, K., Hayashi, S., Ono, S., Hamaoka, T., and Kincade, P. W. (1990) Monoclonal antibodies to Pgp-1/CD44 block lympho-hemopoiesis in long-term bone marrow cultures. J. Exp. Med. 171: 477–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Miyake, K., Medina, K., Ishihara, K., Kimoto, M., Auerbach, R., and Kincade, P. W. (1991a) A VCAM-like adhesion molecule on murine bone marrow stromal cells mediates binding of lymphocyte precursors in culture. J. Cell. Biol 114: 557–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Miyake, K., Weissman, I. L., Greenberger, J. S., and Kincade, P. W. (1991b) Evidence for a role of the integrin VLA-4 in lympho-hemopoiesis. J. Exp. Med. 173: 599–607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Molineux, G., Pojda, Z., Hampson, I. N., Lord, B. I., and Dexter, T. M. (1990) Transplantation potential of peripheral blood stem cells induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 76: 2153–2158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Molineux, G., Migdalska, A., Szmitkowski, M., Zsebo, K., and Dexter, T. M. (1991) The effects on hematopoiesis of recombinant stem cell factor (ligand for c-kit) administered in vivo to mice either alone or in combination with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 78: 961–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Molineux, G., McCrea, C., Yan, X. Q., Kerzic, P., and McNiece, I. (1997) Flt-3 ligand synergizes with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to increase neutrophil numbers and to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells with long-term repopulating potential. Blood 89: 3998–4004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Monette, F. C., and DeMello, J. B. (1979) The relationship between stem cell seeding efficiency and position in cell cycle. Cell Tissue Kind. 12: 161–175.Google Scholar
  157. Moore, M. A., and Metcalf, D. (1970) Ontogeny of the haemopoietic system: yolk sac origin of in vivo and in vitro colony-forming cells in the developing mouse embryo. Br. J. Haematol. 18: 279–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Moore, M. A., and Owen, J. J. (1967) Chromosome marker studies in the irradiated chick embryo. Nature 215: 1081–1082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Morrison, S. J., and Weissman, I. L. (1994) The long-term repopulating subset of hematopoietic stem cells is deterministic and isolatable by phenotype. Immun 1: 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Morrison, S. J., Hemmati, H. D., Wandycz, A. M., and Weissman, I. L. (1995a) The purification and characterization of fetal liver hematopoietic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 10302–10306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Morrison, S. J., Uchida, N., and Weissman, I. L. (1995b) The biology of hematopoietic stem cells. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 11: 35–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Morrison, S. J., Wandycz, A. M., Hemmati, H. D., Wright, D. E., and Weissman, I. L. (1997a) Identification of a lineage of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Development 124: 1929–1939.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Morrison, S. J., Wright, D. E., and Weissman, I. L. (1997b) Cyclophosphamide/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor induces hematopoietic stem cells to proliferate prior to mobilization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 1908–1913.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Mulder, A. H., and Visser, J. W. (1987) Separation and functional analysis of bone marrow cells separated by rhodamine-123 fluorescence. Exp. Hematol. 15: 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Muller-Sieburg, C. E., and Riblet, R. (1996) Genetic control of the frequency of hematopoietic stem cells in mice: mapping of a candidate locus to chromosome 1. J Exp. Med. 183: 1141–1150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Muto, M. (1976) A scanning and transmission electron microscopic study on rat bone marrow sinuses and transmural migration of blood cells. Arch. Histol. Jpn. 39: 51–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Nagasawa, T., Kikutani, H., and Kishimoto, T. (1994) Molecular cloning and structure of a preB-cell growth-stimulating factor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 2305–2309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Nagasawa, T., Hirota, S., Tachibana, K., Takakura, N., Nishikawa, S., Kitamura, Y., Yoshida, N., Kikutani, H., and Kishimoto, T. (1996) Defects of B-cell lymphopoiesis and bone-marrow myelopoiesis in mice lacking the CXC chemokine PBSF/SDF-1. Nature 382: 635–638.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Necas, E., Sefc, L., Brecher, G., and Bookstein, N. (1995) Hematopoietic reserve provided by spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S). Exp. Hematol. 23: 1242–1246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Necas, E., Sefc, L., Sulc, K., Barthel, E., and Seidel, H. J. (1998) Estimation of extent of cell death in different stages of normal murine hematopoiesis. Stem Cells 16: 107–111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Ogawa, M., Nishikawa, S., Ikuta, K., Yamamura, F., Naito, M., and Takahashi, K. (1988) B cell ontogeny in murine embryo studied by a culture system with the monolayer of a stromal cell clone, ST2: B cell progenitor develops first in the embryonal body rather than in the yolk sac. Embo. J. 1337–1343.Google Scholar
  172. Ogawa, M., Matsuzaki, Y., Nishikawa, S., Hayashi, S., Kunisada, T., Sudo, T., Kina, T., and Nakauchi, H. (1991) Expression and function of c-Kit in hemopoietic progenitor cells. J. Exp. Med. 174: 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Ogawa, M. (1993) Differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells. Blood 81: 2844–2853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Ogawa, M., Nishikawa, S., Yoshinaga, K., Hayashi, S., Kunisada, T., Nakao, J., Kina, T., Sudo, T., and Kodama, H. (1993) Expression and function of c-kit in fetal hemopoietic progenitor cells: transition from the early c-kit—independent to the late c-kit—dependent wave of hemopoiesis in the murine embryo. Dev. 117: 1089–1098.Google Scholar
  175. Ogawa, M., Yonemura, Y., and Ku, H. (1997) In vitro expansion of hematopoietic stem cells. Stem Cells 15: 7–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Okada, S., Nakauchi, H., Nagayoshi, K., Nishikawa, S., Miura, Y., and Suda, T. (1991) Enrichment and characterization of murine hematopoietic stem cells that express c-Kit molecule. Blood 78: 1706–1712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Oostendorp, R. A., Reisbach, G., Spitzer, E., Thalmeier, K., Dienemann, H., Mergenthaler, H. G., and Dormer, P. (1995) VLA-4 and VCAM-1 are the principal adhesion molecules involved in the interaction between blast colony-forming cells and bone marrow stromal cells. Br. J Haematol. 91: 275–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Oostendorp, R. A., and Dormer, P. (1997) VLA-4-mediated interactions between normal human hematopoietic progenitors and stromal cells. Leuk. Lymphoma 24: 423–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Ortiz, M., Wine, J. W., Lohrey, N., Ruscetti, F. W., Spence, S. E., and Keller, J. R. (1999) Functional characterization of a novel hematopoietic stem cell and its place in the c-Kit maturation pathway in bone marrow cell development. Immun. 10: 173–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Osawa, M., Hanada, K., Hamada, H., and Nakauchi, H. (1996) Long-term lymphohematopoietic reconstitution by a single CD34-low/negative hematopoietic stem cell. Science 273: 242–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Palis, J., Robertson, S., Kennedy, M., Wall, C., and Keller, G. (1999) Development of erythroid and myeloid progenitors in the yolk sac and embryo proper of the mouse. Development 126: 5073–5084.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Papayannopoulou, T., and Nakamoto, B. (1993) Peripheralization of hemopoietic progenitors in primates treated with anti-VLA4 integrin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 9374–9378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Papayannopoulou, T., Craddock, C., Nakamoto, B., Priestley, G. V., and Wolf, N. S. (1995) The VLA4/VCAM-1 adhesion pathway defines contrasting mechanisms of lodgement of transplanted murine hemopoietic progenitors between bone marrow and spleen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 9647–9651.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Papayannopoulou, T., Nakamoto, B., Andrews, R. G., Lyman, S. D., and Lee, M. Y. (1997) In vivo effects of Flt3/Flk2 ligand on mobilization of hematopoietic progenitors in primates and potent synergistic enhancement with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Blood 90: 620–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Papayannopoulou, T., Priestley, G. V., and Nakamoto, B. (1998) Anti-VLA4/VCAM-1-induced mobilization requires cooperative signaling through the kit/mkit ligand pathway. Blood 91: 2231–2239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Peled, A., Petit, I., Kollet, O., Magid, M., Ponomaryov, T., Byk, T., Nagler, A., Ben-Hur, H., Many, A., Shultz, L., et al. (1999) Dependence of human stem cell engraftment and repopulation of NOD/SCID mice on CXCR4. Science 283: 845–848.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Picker, L. J., Kishimoto, T. K., Smith, C. W., Warnock, R. A., and Butcher, E. C. (1991) ELAM-1 is an adhesion molecule for skin-homing T cells [see comments]. Nature 349: 796–799.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Premack, B. A., and Schall, T. J. (1996) Chemokine receptors: gateways to inflammation and infection. Nat.Med. 2: 1174–1178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Prosper, F., Stroncek, D., McCarthy, J. B., and Verfaillie, C. M. (1998) Mobilization and homing of peripheral blood progenitors is related to reversible downregulation of alpha4 betal integrin expression and function. J. Clin. Invest. 101: 2456–2467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Pruijt, J. F., van Kooyk, Y., Figdor, C. G., Lindley, I.J., Willemze, R., and Fibbe, W. E. (1998) Anti-LFA-1 blocking antibodies prevent mobilization of hematopoietic progenitor cells induced by interleukin-8. Blood 91: 4099–4105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Pruijt, J. F., van Kooyk, Y., Figdor, C. G., Willemze, R., and Fibbe, W. E. (1999) Murine hematopoietic progenitor cells with colony-forming or radioprotective capacity lack expression of the beta 2-integrin LFA-1. Blood 93: 107–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Quesenberry, P. J., Morley, A., Miller, M., Rickard, K., Howard, D., and Stohlman, F. Jr. (1973) Effect of endotoxin on granulopoiesis and the in vitro colony-forming cell. Blood 41: 391–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. Randall, T. D., and Weissman, I. L. (1998) Characterization of a population of cells in the bone marrow that phenotypically mimics hematopoietic stem cells: resting stem cells or mystery population? Stem Cells 16: 38–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Richman, C. M., Weiner, R. S., and Yankee, R. A. (1976) Increase in circulating stem cells following chemotherapy in man. Blood 47: 1031–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Rios, M., and Williams, D. A. (1990) Systematic analysis of the ability of stromal cell lines derived from different murine adult tissues to support maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells in vitro. J. Cell. Physiol. 145: 434–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Rosenfeld, C. S., Bolwell, B., LeFever, A., Taylor, R., List, A., Fay, J., Collins, R., Andrews, F., Pallansch, P., Schuster, M. W., et al. (1996) Comparison of four cytokine regimens for mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells: IL-3 alone and combined with GM-CSF or G-CSF. Bone Marrow Transplant 17: 179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rosnet, O., Marchetto, S., deLapeyriere, O., and Birnbaum, D. (1991) Murine Flt3, a gene encoding a novel tyrosine kinase receptor of the PDGFR/CSF1R family. Oncogene 6: 16411650.Google Scholar
  198. Rosnet, O., Schiff, C., Pebusque, M. J., Marchetto, S., Tonnelle, C., Toiron, Y., Birg, F., and Birnbaum, D. (1993) Human FLT3/FLK2 gene: cDNA cloning and expression in hematopoietic cells. Blood 82: 1110–1119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Saito, H., Kanamori, Y., Takemori, T., Nariuchi, H., Kubota, E., Takahashi-Iwanaga, H., Iwanaga, T., and Ishikawa, H. (1998) Generation of intestinal T cells from progenitors residing in gut cryptopatches. Science 280: 275–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Sanderson, C. J. (1992) Interleukin-5, eosinophils, and disease. Blood 79: 3101–3109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Sarvella, P. A., and Russell, L. B. (1956) Steel, a new dominant gene in the house mouse. J. Hered. 47: 123–128.Google Scholar
  202. Saxe, D. F., Boggs, S. S., and Boggs, D. R. (1984) Transplantation of chromosomally marked syngeneic marrow cells into mice not subjected to hematopoietic stem cell depletion. Exp. Hematol. 12: 277–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Schmits, R., Filmus, J., Gerwin, N., Senaldi, G., Kiefer, F., Kundig, T., Wakeham, A., Shahinian, A., Catzavelos, C., Rak, J., et al. (1997) CD44 regulates hematopoietic progenitor distribution, granuloma formation, and tumorigenicity. Blood 90: 2217–2233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Schweitzer, K. M., Drager, A. M., van der Valk, P., Thijsen, S. F., Zevenbergen, A., Theijsmeijer, A. P., van der Schoot, C. E., and Langenhuijsen, M. M. (1996) Constitutive expression of Eselectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells of hematopoietic tissues. Am. J. Pathol. 148: 165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sharkis, S. J., Collector, M. I., Barber, J. P., Vala, M. S., and Jones, R. J. (1997) Phenotypic and functional characterization of the hematopoietic stem cell Stem Cells 15: 41–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Siena, S., Bregni, M., Brando, B., Ravagnani, F., Bonadonna, G., and Gianni, A. M. (1989) Circulation of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells in the peripheral blood of high-dose cyclophosphamide-treated patients: enhancement by intravenous recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Blood 74; 1905–1914.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Siminovitch, L., McCulloch, E. A., and Till, J. E. (1963) The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 62: 327–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Simmons, P. J., Masinovsky, B., Longenecker, B. M., Berenson, R., Torok-Storb, B., and Gallatin, W. M. (1992) Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expressed by bone marrow stromal cells mediates the binding of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Blood 80: 388–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Small, D., Levenstein, M., Kim, E., Carow, C., Amin, S., Rockwell, P., Witte, L., Burrow, C., Ratajczak, M. Z., Gewirtz, A. M., et al. (1994). STK-1, the human homolog of Flk-2/Flt-3, is selectively expressed in CD34+ human bone marrow cells and is involved in the proliferation of early progenitor/stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 459–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Smith, L. G., Weissman, I. L., and Heimfeld, S. (1991) Clonal analysis of hematopoietic stem-cell differentiation in vivo. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88: 2788–2792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Snodgrass, R., and Keller, G. (1987) Clonal fluctuation within the haematopoietic system of mice reconstituted with retrovirus-infected stem cells. Embo. J 6: 3955–3960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Socinski, M. A., Cannistra, S. A., Elias, A., Antman, K. H., Schnipper, L., and Griffin, J. D., (1988) Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor expands the circulating haemopoietic progenitor cell compartment in man. Lancet 1: 1194–1198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Spangrude, G. J., Heimfeld, S., and Weissman, 1. L. (1988) Purification and characterization of mouse hematopoietic stem cells. Science 241: 58–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Spangrude, G. J., and Johnson, G. R. (1990) Resting and activated subsets of mouse multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 87: 7433–7437.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Spertini, O., Luscinskas, F. W., Kansas, G. S., Munro, J. M., Griffin, J. D., Gimbrone, M. A. Jr., and Tedder, T. F. (1991) Leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (LAM-1, L-selectin) interacts with an inducible endothelial cell ligand to support leukocyte adhesion. J. Immunol. 147: 2565–2573.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Springer, T. A. (1994) Traffic signals for lymphocyte recirculation and leukocyte emigration: the multistep paradigm. Cell 76: 301–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Stanley, E., Lieschke, G. J., Grail, D., Metcalf, D., Hodgson, G., Gall, J. A., Maher, D. W., Cebon, J., Sinickas, V., and Dunn, A. R. (1994) Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor—deficient mice show no major perturbation of hematopoiesis but develop a characteristic pulmonary pathology. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91: 5592–5596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Sudo, Y., Shimazaki, C., Ashihara, E., Kikuta, T., Hirai, H., Sumikuma, T., Yamagata, N., Goto, H., Inaba, T., Fujita, N., and Nakagawa, M. (1997) Synergistic effect of FLT-3 ligand on the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells into blood in mice. Blood 89: 3186–3191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Tachibana, K., Hirota, S., Iizasa, H., Yoshida, H., Kawabata, K., Kataoka, Y., Kitamura, Y., Matsushima, K., Yoshida, N., Nishikawa, S., et al. (1998) The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is essential for vascularization of the gastrointestinal tract [see comments]. Nature 393: 591–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Takada, A., Takada, Y., and Ambrus, J. L. (1971) Proliferation of donor spleen and bone marrow cells in the spleens and bone marrows of unirradiated and irradiated adult mice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 136: 222–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. Takada, Y., and Takada, A. (1971) Proliferation of donor hematopoietic cells in irradiated and unirradiated host mice. Transplantation 12: 334–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Tamkun, J. W., DeSimone, D. W., Fonda, D., Patel, R. S., Buck, C., Horwitz, A. F., and Hynes, R. O. (1986) Structure of integrin, a glycoprotein involved in the transmembrane linkage between fibronectin and actin. Cell 46: 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Tashiro, K., Tada, H., Heilker, R., Shirozu, M., Nakano, T., and Honjo, T. (1993) Signal sequence trap: a cloning strategy for secreted proteins and type I membrane proteins. Science 261: 600603.Google Scholar
  224. Tavassoli, M. (1979) The marrow-blood barrier. Br. J. Haematol. 41: 297–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Tavassoli, M., and Aoki, M. (1981) Migration of entire megakaryocytes through the marrow-blood barrier. Br. J. Haematol. 48: 25–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Tedder, T. F., Penta, A. C., Levine, H. B., and Freedman, A. S. (1990) Expression of the human leukocyte adhesion molecule, LAM1. Identity with the TQ1 and Leu-8 differentiation antigens. J. Immunol. 144: 532–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. Teixido, J., Hemler, M. E., Greenberger, J. S., and Anklesaria, P. (1992) Role of beta 1 and beta 2 integrins in the adhesion of human CD34hi stem cells to bone marrow stroma. J Clin. Invest. 90: 358–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Till, J., and McCulloch, E. (1961) A direct measurement of the radiation sensitivity of normal mouse bone marrow cells. Radial. Res. 14: 213–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Torii, Y., Nitta, Y., Akahori, H., Tawara, T., Kuwaki, T., Ogami, K., Kato, T., and Miyazaki, H. (1998) Mobilization of primitive haemopoietic progenitor cells and stem cells with long-term repopulating ability into peripheral blood in mice by pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor. Br. J. Haematol. 103: 1172–1180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Tracey, J. B., and Rinder, H. M. (1996) Characterization of the P-selectin ligand on human hematopoietic progenitors. Exp. Hematol. 24: 1494–1500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. Traycoff, C. M., Cornetta, K., Yoder, M. C., Davidson, A., and Srour, E. F. (1996) Ex vivo expansion of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells generates classes of expanded cells possessing different levels of bone marrow repopulating potential. Exp. Hematol. 24: 299–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Trevisan, M., and Iscove, N. N. (1995) Phenotypic analysis of murine long-term hemopoietic reconstituting cells quantitated competitively in vivo and comparison with more advanced colony-forming progeny. J. Exp. Med. 181: 93–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Tsuji, K., Lyman, S. D., Sudo, T., Clark, S. C., and Ogawa, M. (1992) Enhancement of murine hematopoiesis by synergistic interactions between steel factor (ligand for c-Kit), interleukin11, and other early acting factors in culture. Blood 79: 2855–2860.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. Tsukamoto, A. S., Reading, C., Carella, A., Frassoni, F., Gorin, C., LaPorte, J., Negrin, R., Blume, K., Cunningham, I., Deisseroth, A., et al. (1994) Biological characterization of stem cell present in mobilized peripheral blood of CML patients. Bone Marrow Transplant 14 (suppl. 3): S25 - S32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. Turley, E., (1982) Purification of a hyaluronate-binding protein fraction that modifies cell social behavior. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 108: 1016–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Turley, E., and Moore, D. (1984) Hyaluronate binding proteins also bind to fibronectin, laminin and collagen. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 121: 808–814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Turley, E., and Torrance, J. (1985) Localization of hyaluronate and hyaluronate-binding protein on motile and non-motile fibroblasts. Exp.Cell.Res. 161: 17–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Turpen, J. B., Knudson, C. M., and Hoefen, P. S. (1981) The early ontogeny of hematopoietic cells studied by grafting cytogenetically labeled tissue anlagen: localization of a prospective stem cell compartment. Dev. Biol. 85: 99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. van der Loo, J. C., and Ploemacher, R. E. (1995) Marrow-and spleen-seeding efficiencies of all murine hematopoietic stem cell subsets are decreased by preincubation with hematopoietic growth factors. Blood 85: 2598–2606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Weiss, L. (1970) Transmural cellular passage in vascular sinuses of rat bone marrow. Blood 36: 189–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Weissman, I., Papaioannou, V., and Gardner, R. (1978) Fetal hematopoietic origins of the adult hematolymphoid system. In: Cold Spring Harbor Conferences on Cell Proliferation. Vol.5: Differentiation of Normal and Neoplastic Hematopoietic Cells, B. Clarkson, P. Mark, and J. Till, eds. New York: Cold Spring Harbor Lab, pp. 33–47.Google Scholar
  242. Wendling, F., Maraskovsky, E., Debili, N., Florindo, C., Teepe, M., Titeux, M., Methia, N., BretonGorius, J., Cosman, D., and Vainchenker, W. (1994) cMpl ligand is a humoral regulator of megakaryocytopoiesis. Nature 369: 571–574.Google Scholar
  243. Wickramasinghe, S. N. (1991) Observations on the ultrastructure of sinusoids and reticular cells in human bone marrow. Clin. Lab. Haematol. 13: 263–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Williams, D. A., Rosenblatt, M. F., Beier, D. R., and Cone, R. D. (1988) Generation of murine stromal cell lines supporting hematopoietic stem cell proliferation by use of recombinant retrovirus vectors encoding simian virus 40 large T antigen. Mol. Cell. Biol. 8: 3864–3871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Williams, D. E., Eisenman, J., Baird, A., Rauch, C., Van Ness, K., March, C. J., Park, L. S., Martin, U., Mochizuki, D. Y., Boswell, H. S., et al. (1990) Identification of a ligand for the c-Kit proto-oncogene. Cell 63: 167–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. Williams, D. E., de Vries, P., Namen, A. E., Widmer, M. B., and Lyman, S. D. (1992) The steel factor. Dev. Biol. 151: 368–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Wineman, J., Moore, K., Lemischka, I., and Muller-Sieburg, C. (1996) Functional heterogeneity of the hematopoietic microenvironment: rare stromal elements maintain long-term repopulating stem cells. Blood 87: 4082–4090.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Wong, P. M., Chung, S. W., Chui, D. H., and Eaves, C. J. (1986) Properties of the earliest donogenic hemopoietic precursors to appear in the developing murine yolk sac. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: 3851–3854.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Wu, A., Till, J., Siminovitch, L., and McCulloch, E. (1968) Cytological evidence for a relationship between normal hematopoietic colony-forming cells and cells of the lymphoid system. J. Exp. Med. 127: 455–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Wu, A. M. (1983). Regulation of self-renewal of human T lymphocyte colony-forming units (TLCFUs). J Cell. Physiol. 117: 101–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Wu, L., Kincade, P. W., and Shortman, K. (1993) The CD44 expressed on the earliest intrathymic precursor population functions as a thymus homing molecule but does not bind to hyaluronate. Immunol. Lett. 38: 69–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Xu, J., Grewal, I. S., Geba, G. P., and Flavell, R. A. (1996) Impaired primary T-cell responses in L-selectin—deficient mice. J. Exp. Med. 183: 589–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Yagi, M., Ritchie, K. A., Sitnicka, E., Storey, C., Roth, G. J., and Bartelmez, S. (1999) Sustained ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells mediated by thrombopoietin. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 8126–8131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Yoder, M. C., Hiatt, K., Dutt, P., Mukherjee, P., Bodine, D. M., and Orlic, D. (1997a) Characterization of definitive lymphohematopoietic stem cells in the day 9 murine yolk sac. Immun. 7: 335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Yoder, M. C., Hiatt, K., and Mukherjee, P. (1997b) In vivo repopulating hematopoietic stem cells are present in the murine yolk sac at day 9.0 postcoitus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 67766780.Google Scholar
  256. Zannettino, A. C., Berndt, M. C., Butcher, C., Butcher, E. C., Vadas, M. A., and Simmons, P. J. (1995) Primitive human hematopoietic progenitors adhere to P-selectin (CD62P). Blood 85: 3466–3477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Zeigler, F. C., de Sauvage, F., Widmer, H. R., Keller, G. A., Donahue, C., Schreiber, R. D., Malloy, B., Hass, P., Eaton, D., and Matthews, W. (1994) In vitro megakaryocytopoietic and throm bopoietic activity of c-Mpl ligand (TPO) on purified murine hematopoietic stem cells. Blood 84: 4045–4052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. Zou, Y. R., Kottmann, A. H., Kuroda, M., Taniuchi, I., and Littman, D. R. (1998) Function of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in haematopoiesis and in cerebellar development [see comments]. Nature 393: 595–599.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. Zsebo, K. M., Williams, D. A., Geissler, E. N., Broudy, V. C., Martin, F. H., Atkins, H. L., Hsu, R. Y., Birkett, N. C., Okino, K. H., Murdock, D. C., et al. (1990) Stem cell factor is encoded at the Sl locus of the mouse and is the ligand for the c-Kit tyrosine kinase receptor. Cell 63: 213–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© American Physiological Society 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas E. Wright
  • Irving L. Weissman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations