El Niño and Southern Oscillation

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
  • Lydia Stefanova
  • Vasubandhu Misra
Part of the Springer Atmospheric Sciences book series (SPRINGERATMO)


The Southern Oscillation is a sea level pressure oscillation over the equatorial latitudes between the Eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean. El Niño is a phenomenon that is characterized by the occurrence of warmer than normal sea surface temperatures over the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. These two phenomena are intimately interwoven, so much so that they are usually considered together, under the name of ENSO, or El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Southern Oscillation has a time scale of roughly 4–6 years. Within that period warm SST anomalies over the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño) are followed by cold SST anomalies (La Nina). This chapter is devoted to the observational, theoretical and modeling aspects of ENSO.


Convection Depression Radar Stratification Vorticity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. N. Krishnamurti
    • 1
  • Lydia Stefanova
    • 2
  • Vasubandhu Misra
    • 2
  1. 1.Florida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.Center for Ocean-Atmospheric PredictionFlorida State UniversityTallahasseeUSA

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