El Niño and Southern Oscillation
The Southern Oscillation is a sea level pressure oscillation over the equatorial latitudes between the Eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean. El Niño is a phenomenon that is characterized by the occurrence of warmer than normal sea surface temperatures over the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. These two phenomena are intimately interwoven, so much so that they are usually considered together, under the name of ENSO, or El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The Southern Oscillation has a time scale of roughly 4–6 years. Within that period warm SST anomalies over the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean (El Niño) are followed by cold SST anomalies (La Nina). This chapter is devoted to the observational, theoretical and modeling aspects of ENSO.
KeywordsConvection Depression Radar Stratification Vorticity
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