Advertisement

Diet Quality pp 299-312 | Cite as

Whole Grains and Diet

  • Satya S. Jonnalagadda
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Whole grains and whole grain foods are an important component of nutrient-dense diets and play a significant role in maintaining health and preventing chronic disease. This chapter briefly summarizes the role of whole grains in health and nutrition through discussion of: definition of whole grains, whole grain composition, whole dietary recommendations and consumption patterns, dietary sources of whole grains, whole grains impact on diet quality and whole grain foods in the market place. This chapter is not meant to be a comprehensive review of these topics but rather provides an overview of the importance of whole grains.

Keywords

Whole grains Whole grain foods Nutrients Phytonutrients Diet quality 

Abbreviations

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intake

EAT

Eating attitudes of teenagers

HEI

Healthy Eating Index

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

RTEC

Ready-to-eat-cereals

TE

Trolox equivalents

References

  1. 1.
    American Association of Cereal Chemists International. AACC members agree on definition of whole grain. Available at: http://www.aaccnet.org/­initiatives/definitions/Pages/WholeGrain.aspx. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  2. 2.
    United States Food and Drug Administration. FDA provides guidance on “whole grain” for manufacturers. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/2006/ucm108598.htm. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  3. 3.
    United Kingdom Food Standards Agency, National Health Services Eatwell Plate. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Goodfood/Pages/starchy-­foods.aspx. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  4. 4.
    Health Grain Forum. Whole grain definition. Available at: http://www.healthgrain.org/webfm_send/44. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  5. 5.
    Okarter N, Liu RH. Health benefits of whole grain phytochemicals. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2010;50:193–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service. 2009. USDA national nutrient database for standard reference, Release 22. Nutrient Data Laboratory home page. http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  7. 7.
    Gil A, Ortega RM, Maldonado J. Wholegrain cereals and bread: a duet of the Mediterranean diet for the prevention of chronic diseases. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:2316–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Adom KK, Sorrells ME, Liu RH. Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of milled fractions of different wheat varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53: 2297–306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Adom KK, Liu RH. Antioxidant activity of grains. J Agric Food Chem. 2002;50:6182–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Andreasen MF, Kroon PA, Williamson G, et al. Intestinal release and uptake of phenolic antioxidant diferulic acids. Free Radic Biol Med. 2001;31(3):304–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chatenoud L, Tavni A, La Vecchia C, et al. Whole grain food intake and cancer risk. Int J Cancer. 1998;77:24–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Miller HE, Rigelhof F, Marquart L, et al. Antioxidant content of whole grain breakfast cereals, fruits and vegetables. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19:312S–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. 2010. Available at: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/DGAs2010-­DGACReport.htm. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  14. 14.
    Cleveland LE, Moshfegh AJ, Albertson AM, et al. Dietary intake of whole grains. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000;19(3 Suppl):331S–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Good CK, Holschuh NM, Albertson AM, et al. Whole grain consumption and body mass index in adult women: an analysis of NHANES 1999–2000 and the USDA pyramid serving database. J Am Coll Nutr. 2008;27:80–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mancino L, Kuchler F, Leibtag E. Getting consumers to eat more whole-grains: the role of policy, information, and food manufacturers. Food Policy. 2008;33: 489–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maras JE, Newby PK, Bakun PJ, et al. Whole grain intake: the Baltimore longitudinal study of aging. J Food Compost Anal. 2009;22:53–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Zanovec M, et al. Whole-­grain consumption is associated with diet quality and nutrient intake in adults: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:1461–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Thane CW, Jones AR, Stephen AM, et al. Comparative whole-grain intake of British adults in 1986–7 and 2000–1. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:987–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Egeberg R, Frederiksen K, Olsen A, et al. Intake of wholegrain products is associated with dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric and socio-economic factors in Denmark. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:1519–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kyrø C, Skeie G, Dragsted LO, et al. Intake of whole grain in Scandinavia: intake, sources and compliance with new national recommendations. Scand J Public Health. 2012;40(1):76–84. doi:  10.1177/1403494811421057.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thane CW, Jones AR, Stephen AM, et al. Whole-­grain intake of British young people aged 4–18 years. Br J Nutr. 2005;94:825–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alexy U, Zorn C, Kersting M. Whole grain in children’s diet: intake, food sources and trends. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64:745–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Larson NI, Neumark-Sztainer D, Story M, Burgess-­Champoux T. Whole-grain intake correlates among adolescents and young adults: findings from Project EAT. J Am Diet Assoc. 2010;110:230–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Burgess-Champoux TL, Larson NI, Neumark-­Sztainer DR, et al. Longitudinal and secular trends in adolescent whole-grain consumption, 1999–2004. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91:154–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harnack L, Walters SA, Jacobs Jr DR. Dietary intake and food sources of whole grains among US children and adolescents: data from the 1994–1996 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:1015–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    O’Neil CE, Nicklas TA, Zanovec M, et al. Consumption of whole grains is associated with improved diet quality and nutrient intake in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14:347–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Keast DR, Rosen RA, Arndt EA, Marquart LF. Dietary modeling shows that substitution of ­whole-­grain for refined-grain ingredients of foods commonly consumed by US children and teens can increase intake of whole grains. J Am Diet Assoc. 2011;111:1322–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sadeghi L, Marquart L. Whole grain snack intake in an after-school snack program: a pilot study. J Food Serv. 2009;20:71–80.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bachman JL, Reedy J, Subar AF, Krebs-Smith SM. Sources of food group intakes among the US population, 2001–2002. J Am Diet Assoc. 2008;108:804–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Albertson AM, Tobelmann RC. Consumption of grain and whole-grain foods by an American population during the years 1990 to 1992. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:703–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Melanson KJ, Angelopoulos TJ, Nguyen VT, et al. Consumption of whole-grain cereals during weight loss: effects on dietary quality, dietary fiber, magnesium, vitamin B-6, and obesity. J Am Diet Assoc. 2006;106:1380–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    PRWeb. Global whole grain and high fiber foods market to reach US $24 billion by 2015. http://www.prweb.com/printer/8041782.htm. Accessed 17 Dec 2011.
  34. 34.
    Sloan E. Consumers go with the grain. Food Technol. 2011;65:18.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.General Mills Bell Institute of Health and NutritionGolden ValleyUSA

Personalised recommendations