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C-Reactive Protein and Diet Quality in Children

Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

This review examines the relationship(s) between several dietary aspects (i.e. food consumption, dietary biochemical markers and nutrient intake through food or supplements) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration in childhood populations. The first paper published on this topic was in 2005, and until 2011, only ten papers have been published, all of which are reviewed here.

The sample sizes of studies reviewed varied from less than 100 (three studies) to more than 1,000 participants (three studies). The remaining four studies included between about 100–300 participants. Nine of the ten studies were cross-sectional, and one was an intervention study. In the majority of the reviewed studies, foods and nutrients that are generally considered as health-protecting (e.g. grains, vegetables, fruit, dairy fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid, zinc, iron, magnesium and folate) were inversely related to CRP concentration (in 7 out of the 10 reviewed studies), whereas foods and nutrients that are generally considered as unhealthy (e.g. saturated fat, meat and French fries) were not significantly related to CRP concentration (in four out of six studies that reported such associations). In the remaining two studies reviewed, there was a positive effect of total and different types of fatty acids to CRP and an additive effect of foods, assessed via dietary indices, considered ‘unhealthy’, to increasing CRP concentration. In summary, preliminary evidence shows that a healthy diet may be protective against inflammation as shown by the lower CRP concentration; nevertheless, since the number of studies conducted is limited and there is considerable heterogeneity in the dietary markers used, the participants’ age and the sample sizes, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn. With regard to ‘unhealthy’ dietary components or markers, the evidence is less clear; nevertheless, there is some evidence pointing to the direction of focusing research on the additive role of foods or components, generally considered ‘unhealthy’. In conclusion, although there is some evidence on the role of diet on CRP concentration in children, more research is needed in order to better understand this relationship.

Keywords

hs-CRP Adiposity Inflammation Atherosclerosis Diet Children Dietary indices 

Abbreviations

BF%

Body fat percentage

BIA

Bioelectrical impedance analysis

BMI

Body mass index

CE

Cholesterol esters

CRP

C-reactive protein

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

F

Female

hs

High-sensitivity

KIDMED

Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children

M

Male

Mg

Magnesium

n

Number

OR

Odds ratio

PL

Phospholipids

RDA

Recommended Daily Allowance

SDS

Standard deviation score

SES

Socioeconomic status

WC

Waist circumference

WHR

Waist to hip ratio

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ministry of Education and Culture, Cyprus Food & Nutrition MuseumEngomi, NicosiaCyprus
  2. 2.Department of Life and Health Sciences, School of SciencesUniversity of NicosiaNicosiaCyprus

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