Medical Implications of Oocyte Donation

  • Joao Correia De Pinho
  • William E. Gibbons


Fertility treatments have radically changed the outcome for patients who otherwise would not have an opportunity to reproduce. Indications and choices have expanded progressively, with most advances relying on the availability of the patient’s own genetic material. When this latter is not an option, the use of egg donation (DE) becomes a management alternative that has increased in use exponentially. There are important procedural differences between in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET) that are specific to the donor’s and recipient’s cycles that represent an additional challenge for the reproductive endocrinology team. This may expose women to unforeseen procedural, gestational, and long-term risks. Over the years, there have been many claims regarding the medical consequences for donor, mother, and the offspring born through the oocyte donation process. This chapter provides a review of the literature demonstrating some misconceptions of the past and the need for an update to previous recommendations in the management of donor programs. The main objective of this chapter is to review and explain the oocyte donation process and detail possible medical implications for donors, recipients, and offspring.


egg donor oocyte donation medical complications 


  1. 1.
    Bustillo M, Buster JE, Cohen SW, Thorneycroft IH, Simon JA, Boyers SP, et al. Nonsurgical ovum transfer as a treatment in infertile women. Preliminary experience. JAMA. 1984;251(9):1171–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Buster JE, Bustillo M, Thorneycroft IH, Simon JA, Boyers SP, Marshall JR, et al. Non-surgical transfer of in vivo fertilised donated ova to five infertile women: report of two pregnancies. Lancet. 1983; 2(8343):223–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lutjen P, Trounson A, Leeton J, Findlay J, Wood C, Renou P. The establishment and maintenance of pregnancy using in vitro fertilization and embryo donation in a patient with primary ovarian failure. Nature. 1984;307(5947):174–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kavic SM, Sauer MV. Oocyte donation treats infertility in survivors of malignancies: ten-year experience. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2001;18(3):181–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ. Consecutive pregnancies in a menopausal woman following oocyte donation. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1991;32(2):118–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Klein J, Sauer MV. Oocyte donation. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2002;16(3):277–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pados G, Camus M, Van Steirteghem A, Bonduelle M, Devroey P. The evolution and outcome of pregnancies from oocyte donation. Hum Reprod. 1994; 9(3):538–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Paulson RJ, Hatch IE, Lobo RA, Sauer MV. Cumulative conception and live birth rates after oocyte donation: implications regarding endometrial receptivity. Hum Reprod. 1997;12(4):835–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    van der Hoorn ML, Lashley EE, Bianchi DW, Claas FH, Schonkeren CM, Scherjon SA. Clinical and immunologic aspects of egg donation pregnancies: a systematic review. Hum Reprod Update. 2010;16(6): 704–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Borini A, Bafaro MG, Bianchi L, Violini F, Bonu MA, Flamigni C. Oocyte donation programme: results obtained with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in cases of severe male factor infertility or previous failed fertilization. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(3):548–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Borini A, Bianchi L, Violini F, Maccolini A, Cattoli M, Flamigni C. Oocyte donation program: pregnancy and implantation rates in women of different ages sharing oocytes from single donor. Fertil Steril. 1996;65(1):94–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stolwijk AM, Zielhuis GA, Sauer MV, Hamilton CJ, Paulson RJ. The impact of the woman’s age on the success of standard and donor in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1997;67(4):702–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Soares SR, Troncoso C, Bosch E, Serra V, Simon C, Remohi J, et al. Age and uterine receptiveness: predicting the outcome of oocyte donation cycles. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90(7):4399–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Paulson RJ, Boostanfar R, Saadat P, Mor E, Tourgeman DE, Slater CC, et al. Pregnancy in the sixth decade of life: obstetric outcomes in women of advanced reproductive age. JAMA. 2002;288(18): 2320–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    van Kasteren YM, Schoemaker J. Premature ovarian failure: a systematic review on therapeutic interventions to restore ovarian function and achieve pregnancy. Hum Reprod Update. 1999;5(5):483–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coulam CB. Premature gonadal failure. Fertil Steril. 1982;38(6):645–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chatterjee S, Modi D, Maitra A, Kadam S, Patel Z, Gokrall J, et al. Screening for FOXL2 gene mutations in women with premature ovarian failure: an Indian experience. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007; 15(5):554–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Coulam CB, Adamson SC, Annegers JF. Incidence of premature ovarian failure. Obstet Gynecol. 1986;67(4):604–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Practice Committees of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Mature oocyte cryopreservation: a guideline. Fertil Steril. 2013;99(1): 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chevalier N, Bstandig B, Galand-Portier M, Isnard V, Bongain A, Fenichel P. Procreation par don d’ovocytes dans le syndrome de Turner: une situation a haut risque. [Oocyte donation in patients with Turner syndrome: A high-risk pregnancy]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2009;70(4):246–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fenichel P, Letur H. Procreation et syndrome de Turner: quelles recommandations avant, pendant et apres la grossesse? [Procreation in Turner’s syndrome: which recommendations before, during and after pregnancy?]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2008; 36(9):891–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Practice Committee of American Society For Reproductive Medicine. Increased maternal cardiovascular mortality associated with pregnancy in women with Turner syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(2):282–4.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. Recommendations for gamete and embryo donation: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2013;99(1):47–62 e1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trounson A, Leeton J, Besanko M, Wood C, Conti A. Pregnancy established in an infertile patient after transfer of a donated embryo fertilised in vitro. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 1983;286(6368):835–8. The fertilization and transfer of a donated embryo. The recipient, whose husband was infertile, became pregnant after receiving a donor ovum fertilized with donor sperm. The ovum donor, also under treatment for infertility, failed to conceive after three ova fertilized by her husband's sperm were re-implanted. The procedures used in the treatment of both women are outlined, and the possible reasons for the recipient's spontaneous abortion and the donor's failure to conceive are discussed. Also touched upon are the ethical, legal, and psychological implications of using donor material to achieve pregnancy.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rosenwaks Z. Donor eggs: their application in modern reproductive technologies. Fertil Steril. 1987;47(6):895–909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Devroey P, Camus M, van den Abbeel E, van Waesberghe L, Wisanto A, van Steirteghem AC. Establishment of 22 pregnancies after oocyte and embryo donation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1989; 96(8):900–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Van SA, Pados G, Devroey P, Bonduelle M, Van AE, Liebaers I. Oocyte donation for genetic indications. Reprod Fertil Dev. 1992;4(6):681–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law. III. Gamete and embryo donation. Hum Reprod. 2002; 17(5):1407–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jones Jr HW, Cooke I, Kempers R, Brinsden P, Saunders D. International Federation of Fertility Societies Surveillance 2010: preface. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(2):491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Shenfield F, Pennings G, Cohen J, Devroey P, Tarlatzis B. Taskforce 9: the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis for human leukocyte antigen typing of embryos. Hum Reprod. 2005; 20(4):845–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law. Taskforce 7: Ethical considerations for the cryopreservation of gametes and reproductive tissues for self use. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(2):460–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Pennings G, de Wert G, Shenfield F, Cohen J, Tarlatzis B, Devroey P. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 12: oocyte donation for non-reproductive purposes. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(5):1210–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pennings G, de Wert G, Shenfield F, Cohen J, Devroey P, Tarlatzis B. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 11: posthumous assisted reproduction. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(12):3050–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shenfield F, Pennings G, Cohen J, Devroey P, de Wert G, Tarlatzis B. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 10: surrogacy. Hum Reprod. 2005;20(10): 2705–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cobo A, Meseguer M, Remohi J, Pellicer A. Use of cryo-banked oocytes in an ovum donation programme: a prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Hum Reprod. 2010;25(9):2239–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mertes H, Pennings G. Oocyte donation for stem cell research. Hum Reprod. 2007;22(3):629–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nelissen EC, van Montfoort AP, Dumoulin JC, Evers JL. Epigenetics and the placenta. Hum Reprod Update. 2011;17(3):397–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garcia JI, Noriega-Portella L, Noriega-Hoces L. Efficacy of oocyte vitrification combined with blastocyst stage transfer in an egg donation program. Hum Reprod. 2011;26(4):782–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Simchen MJ, Shulman A, Wiser A, Zilberberg E, Schiff E. The aged uterus: multifetal pregnancy outcome after ovum donation in older women. Hum Reprod. 2009;24(10):2500–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Practice Committee of American Society for Reproductive Medicine; Practice Committee of Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology. 2008 Guidelines for gamete and embryo donation: A Practice Committee report. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(5 Suppl):S30–44. PubMed PMID: 19007645. Epub 2008/11/26. eng.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lindheim SR, Sauer MV. Upper genital-tract screening with hysterosonography in patients receiving donated oocytes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1998;60(1): 47–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Moomjy M, Mangieri R, Beltramone F, Cholst I, Veeck L, Rosenwaks Z. Shared oocyte donation: society’s benefits. Fertil Steril. 2000;73(6):1165–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Glujovsky D, Fiszbajn G, Lipowicz R, Lavolpe M, Sueldo C. Practice of sharing donated oocytes among several recipients. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(6): 1786–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Blyth E. Subsidized IVF: the development of ‘egg sharing’ in the United Kingdom. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(12):3254–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Reh AE, Licciardi F, Krey L, Berkeley A, Kump L. Enhanced screening of prospective oocyte donors: a ten-year review. Fertil Steril. 2008;90:S384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Mullin CM, Fino ME, Talebian S, Keegan D, Grifo JA, Licciardi F. Comparison of pregnancy outcomes in anonymous shared versus exclusive donor oocyte in vitro fertilization cycles. Fertil Steril. 2010; 93(2):574–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ethics Committee, American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Family members as gamete donors and surrogates. Fertil Steril. 2003;80(5): 1124–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ethics Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Financial incentives in recruitment of oocyte donors. Fertil Steril. 2004;82 Suppl 1:S240–4.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Keehn J, Holwell E, Abdul-Karim R, Chin LJ, Leu CS, Sauer MV, et al. Recruiting egg donors online: an analysis of in vitro fertilization clinic and agency websites’ adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines. Fertil Steril. 2012;98(4):995–1000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zenke U, Chetkowski RJ. Inclusion of heterozygotes for cystic fibrosis in the egg donor pool. Fertil Steril. 2002;78(3):557–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hamer FC, Horne G, Pease EH, Matson PL, Lieberman BA. The quarantine of fertilized donated oocytes. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(5):1194–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Serna J, Garcia-Velasco JA. Effect of repeated assisted reproduction techniques on the ovarian response. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2005;17(3): 233–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Caligara C, Navarro J, Vargas G, Simon C, Pellicer A, Remohi J. The effect of repeated controlled ovarian stimulation in donors. Hum Reprod. 2001; 16(11):2320–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Bukulmez O, Li Q, Carr BR, Leader B, Doody KM, Doody KJ. Repetitive oocyte donation does not decrease serum anti-Müllerian hormone levels. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(3):905–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Cobo A, Diaz C. Clinical application of oocyte vitrification: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Fertil Steril. 2011; 96(2):277–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Kato O, Leibo SP. Highly efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of human oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005; 11(3):300–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cobo A, Bellver J, Domingo J, Perez S, Crespo J, Pellicer A, et al. New options in assisted reproduction technology: the Cryotop method of oocyte vitrification. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17(1):68–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Van Landuyt L, Stoop D, Verheyen G, Verpoest W, Camus M, Van de Velde H, et al. Outcome of closed blastocyst vitrification in relation to blastocyst quality: evaluation of 759 warming cycles in a single-embryo transfer policy. Hum Reprod. 2011;26: 527–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Giudice L, Santa E, Pool R. Assessing the medical risks of human oocyte donation for stem cell research: Workshop report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2007.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Bodri D, Guillen JJ, Galindo A, Mataro D, Pujol A, Coll O. Triggering with human chorionic gonadotropin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist in gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist-treated oocyte donor cycles: findings of a large retrospective cohort study. Fertil Steril. 2009;91(2):365–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shapiro BS, Daneshmand ST, Garner FC, Aguirre M, Ross R. Comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for final oocyte maturation in oocyte donor cycles. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(17296193):237–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Acevedo B, Gomez-Palomares JL, Ricciarelli E, Hernandez ER. Triggering ovulation with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists does not compromise embryo implantation rates. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(1):1682–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morris RS, Paulson RJ, Sauer MV, Lobo RA. Predictive value of serum oestradiol concentrations and oocyte number in severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(4):811–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Babayof R, Margalioth EJ, Huleihel M, Amash A, Zylber-Haran E, Gal M, et al. Serum inhibin A, VEGF and TNFalpha levels after triggering oocyte maturation with GnRH agonist compared with HCG in women with polycystic ovaries undergoing IVF treatment: a prospective randomized trial. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(5):1260–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Engmann L, DiLuigi A, Schmidt D, Benadiva C, Maier D, Nulsen J. The effect of luteal phase vaginal estradiol supplementation on the success of in vitro fertilization treatment: a prospective randomized study. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(3):554–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sauer MV. Defining the incidence of serious complications experienced by oocyte donors: a review of 1000 cases. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2001;184(3): 277–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Halme J, Toma SK, Talbert LM. A case of severe ovarian hyperstimulation in a healthy oocyte donor. Fertil Steril. 1995;64(4):857–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bodri D, Guillén JJ, Polo A, Trullenque M, Esteve C, Coll O. Complications related to ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval in 4052 oocyte donor cycles. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17(2):237–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ. Mishaps and misfortunes: complications that occur in oocyte donation. Fertil Steril. 1994;61(5):963–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Reissmann T, Felberbaum R, Diedrich K, Engel J, Comaru-Schally AM, Schally AV. Development and applications of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone antagonists in the treatment of infertility: an overview. Hum Reprod. 1995;10(8):1974–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Craft I, Gorgy A, Hill J, Menon D, Podsiadly B. Will GnRH antagonists provide new hope for patients considered ‘difficult responders’ to GnRH agonist protocols? Hum Reprod. 1999;14(2):2959–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bodri D, Sunkara SK, Coomarasamy A. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists versus antagonists for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in oocyte donors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(1):164–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thong KJ, Yong PY, Menezes Q. The administration of the GnRH antagonist, cetrorelix, to oocyte donors simplifies oocyte donation. Hum Reprod. 2003; 18(6):1256–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA. Comparing the clinical utility of GnRH antagonist to GnRH agonist in an oocyte donation program. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1997;43(4):215–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Al-Inany H, Aboulghar M (2001) Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists for assisted conception. Cochrane Datab Syst Rev (Online) 4:CD001750.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Leeton J, Chan LK, Trounson A, Harman J. Pregnancy established in an infertile patient after transfer of an embryo fertilized in vitro where the oocyte was donated by the sister of the recipient. J In Vitro Fert Embryo Transf. 1986;3(6):379–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Navot D, Anderson TL, Droesch K, Scott RT, Kreiner D, Rosenwaks Z. Hormonal manipulation of endometrial maturation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;68(4):801–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Glujovsky D, Pesce R, Fiszbajn G, Sueldo C, Hart RJ, Ciapponi A (2010) Endometrial preparation for women undergoing embryo transfer with frozen embryos or embryos derived from donor oocytes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (Online) (1):CD006359.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Devroey P, Pados G. Preparation of endometrium for egg donation. Hum Reprod Update. 1998;4(6): 856–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Grzegorczyk-Martin V, Mayenga JM, Kulski O, Belaid Y, Grefenstette I, Belaisch-Allart J. Preparation endometriale chez les receveuses dans un programme de don d’ovocytes. [Endometrial preparation in oocyte recipients]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2012;40(9):507–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lelaidier C, de Ziegler D, Gaetano J, Hazout A, Fernandez H, Frydman R. Controlled preparation of the endometrium with exogenous oestradiol and progesterone: a novel regimen not using a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist. Hum Reprod. 1992;7(10):1353–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Adams SM, Gayer N, Terry V, Murphy CR. Manipulation of the follicular phase: Uterodomes and pregnancy—is there a correlation? BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2001;1(1):2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Borini A, Dal Prato L, Bianchi L, Violini F, Cattoli M, Flamigni C. Effect of duration of estradiol replacement on the outcome of oocyte donation. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2001;18(4):185–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Noyes N, Hampton BS, Berkeley A, Licciardi F, Grifo J, Krey L. Factors useful in predicting the success of oocyte donation: a 3-year retrospective analysis. Fertil Steril. 2001;76(1):92–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ryan KJ, Engel LL. The interconversion of estrone and estradiol by human tissue slices. Endocrinology. 1953;52(3):287–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Remohi J, Vidal A, Pellicer A. Oocyte donation in low responders to conventional ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1993;59(6): 1208–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Ben-Nun I, Shulman A. Induction of artificial endometrial cycles with s.c. oestrogen implants and injectable progesterone in in-vitro fertilization treatment with donated oocytes: a preliminary report. Hum Reprod. 1997;12(10):2267–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Mandel FP, Geola FL, Meldrum DR, Lu JH, Eggena P, Sambhi MP, et al. Biological effects of various doses of vaginally administered conjugated equine estrogens in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983;57(1):133–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Stumpf PG, Maruca J, Santen RJ, Demers LM. Development of a vaginal ring for achieving physiologic levels of 17 beta-estradiol in hypoestrogenic women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982;54(1): 208–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Powers MS, Schenkel L, Darley PE, Good WR, Balestra JC, Place VA. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of transdermal dosage forms of 17 beta-estradiol: comparison with conventional oral estrogens used for hormone replacement. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1985;152(8):1099–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Escriba MJ, Bellver J, Bosch E, Sanchez M, Pellicer A, Remohi J. Delaying the initiation of progesterone supplementation until the day of fertilization does not compromise cycle outcome in patients receiving donated oocytes: a randomized study. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(1):92–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bourgain C, Devroey P, Van Waesberghe L, Smitz J, Van Steirteghem AC. Effects of natural progesterone on the morphology of the endometrium in patients with primary ovarian failure. Hum Reprod. 1990;5(5):537–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Miles RA, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA, Press MF, Dahmoush L, Sauer MV. Pharmacokinetics and endometrial tissue levels of progesterone after administration by intramuscular and vaginal routes: a comparative study. Fertil Steril. 1994;62(3): 485–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gibbons WE, Toner JP, Hamacher P, Kolm P. Experience with a novel vaginal progesterone preparation in a donor oocyte program. Fertil Steril. 1998;69(1):96–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Jobanputra K, Toner JP, Denoncourt R, Gibbons WE. Crinone 8 % (90 mg) given once daily for progesterone replacement therapy in donor egg cycles. Fertil Steril. 1999;72(6):980–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhang X, Chen CH, Confino E, Barnes R, Milad M, Kazer RR. Increased endometrial thickness is associated with improved treatment outcome for selected patients undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 2005;83(2):336–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Weissman A, Gotlieb L, Casper RF. Endocrine function in transplanted ovaries? Fertil Steril. 1999; 71(2):385–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dietterich C, Check JH, Choe JK, Nazari A, Lurie D. Increased endometrial thickness on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin injection does not adversely affect pregnancy or implantation rates following in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 2002; 77(4):781–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    De Geyter C, Schmitter M, De Geyter M, Nieschlag E, Holzgreve W, Schneider HP. Prospective evaluation of the ultrasound appearance of the endometrium in a cohort of 1,186 infertile women. Fertil Steril. 2000;73(1):106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Khalifa E, Brzyski RG, Oehninger S, Acosta AA, Muasher SJ. Sonographic appearance of the endometrium: the predictive value for the outcome of in-vitro fertilization in stimulated cycles. Hum Reprod. 1992;7(5):677–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Isaacs Jr JD, Wells CS, Williams DB, Odem RR, Gast MJ, Strickler RC. Endometrial thickness is a valid monitoring parameter in cycles of ovulation induction with menotropins alone. Fertil Steril. 1996;65(2):262–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Detti L, Yelian FD, Kruger ML, Diamond MP, Rode A, Mitwally MF, et al. Endometrial thickness is related to miscarriage rate, but not to the estradiol concentration, in cycles down-regulated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(4):998–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Friedler S, Schenker JG, Herman A, Lewin A. The role of ultrasonography in the evaluation of endometrial receptivity following assisted reproductive treatments: a critical review. Hum Reprod Update. 1996;2(4):323–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Check JH, Nowroozi K, Choe J, Lurie D, Dietterich C. The effect of endometrial thickness and echo pattern on in vitro fertilization outcome in donor oocyte-embryo transfer cycle. Fertil Steril. 1993; 59(1):72–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Elizur SE, Son WY, Yap R, Gidoni Y, Levin D, Demirtas E, et al. Comparison of low-dose human menopausal gonadotropin and micronized 17beta-estradiol supplementation in in vitro maturation cycles with thin endometrial lining. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(3):907–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Grifo JA, Noyes N. Delivery rate using cryopreserved oocytes is comparable to conventional in vitro fertilization using fresh oocytes: potential fertility preservation for female cancer patients. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(2):391–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Yang D, Brown SE, Nguyen K, Reddy V, Brubaker C, Winslow KL. Live birth after the transfer of human embryos developed from cryopreserved oocytes harvested before cancer treatment. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(6):1469 e1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Yoon TK, Kim TJ, Park SE, Hong SW, Ko JJ, Chung HM, et al. Live births after vitrification of oocytes in a stimulated in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer program. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(6):1323–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Fabbri R, Porcu E, Marsella T, Rocchetta G, Venturoli S, Flamigni C. Human oocyte cryopreservation: new perspectives regarding oocyte survival. Hum Reprod. 2001;16(3):411–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Borini A, Sciajno R, Bianchi V, Sereni E, Flamigni C, Coticchio G. Clinical outcome of oocyte cryopreservation after slow cooling with a protocol utilizing a high sucrose concentration. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(2):512–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oktay K, Cil AP, Bang H. Efficiency of oocyte cryopreservation: a meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2006; 86(1):70–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Porcu E, Fabbri R, Petracchi S, Ciotti PM, Flamigni C. Ongoing pregnancy after intracytoplasmic injection of testicular spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(4): 1044–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Van Steirteghem AC, Van den Abbeel E, Camus M, Van Waesberghe L, Braeckmans P, Khan I, et al. Cryopreservation of human embryos obtained after gamete intra-Fallopian transfer and/or in-vitro fertilization. Hum Reprod. 1987;2(7):593–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Levi Setti PE, Albani E, Novara PV, Cesana A, Morreale G. Cryopreservation of supernumerary oocytes in IVF/ICSI cycles. Hum Reprod. 2006; 21(2):370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kuwayama M, Vajta G, Ieda S, Kato O. Comparison of open and closed methods for vitrification of human embryos and the elimination of potential contamination. Reprod Biomed Online. 2005;11(5):608–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Fahy GM, MacFarlane DR, Angell CA, Meryman HT. Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation. Cryobiology. 1984;21(4):407–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yoon TK, Lee DR, Cha SK, Chung HM, Lee WS, Cha KY. Survival rate of human oocytes and pregnancy outcome after vitrification using slush nitrogen in assisted reproductive technologies. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(4):952–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Vajta G, Nagy ZP. Are programmable freezers still needed in the embryo laboratory? Review on vitrification. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;12(6): 779–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Selman H, Angelini A, Barnocchi N, Brusco GF, Pacchiarotti A, Aragona C. Ongoing pregnancies after vitrification of human oocytes using a combined solution of ethylene glycol and dimethyl sulfoxide. Fertil Steril. 2006;86(4):997–991000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Nagy ZP, Chang C-C, Shapiro DB, Bernal DP, Elsner CW, Mitchell-Leef D, et al. Clinical evaluation of the efficiency of an oocyte donation program using egg cryo-banking. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(2):520–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Lucena E, Bernal DP, Lucena C, Rojas A, Moran A, Lucena A. Successful ongoing pregnancies after vitrification of oocytes. Fertil Steril. 2006;85(1):108–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cobo A, Kuwayama M, Perez S, Ruiz A, Pellicer A, Remohi J. Comparison of concomitant outcome achieved with fresh and cryopreserved donor oocytes vitrified by the Cryotop method. Fertil Steril. 2008;89(6):1657–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Chian R-C, Huang JYJ, Tan SL, Lucena E, Saa A, Rojas A, et al. Obstetric and perinatal outcome in 200 infants conceived from vitrified oocytes. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16(5):608–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Antinori M, Licata E, Dani G, Cerusico F, Versaci C, Antinori S. Cryotop vitrification of human oocytes results in high survival rate and healthy deliveries. Reprod Biomed Online. 2007;14(1):72–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Nagy ZP, Chang C-C, Shapiro DB, Bernal DP, Elsner CW, Mitchell-Leef D, et al. Clinical evaluation of the efficiency of an oocyte donation program using egg cryo-banking. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(2):520–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Won HR, Abbott J. Optimal management of chronic cyclical pelvic pain: an evidence-based and pragmatic approach. Int J Womens Health. 2010; 2:263–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ludwig M, Jelkmann W, Bauer O, Diedrich K. Prediction of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome by free serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentration on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin administration. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(10):2437–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Lee A, Christenson LK, Stouffer RL, Burry KA, Patton PE. Vascular endothelial growth factor levels in serum and follicular fluid of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1997;68(2):305–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Agrawal R, Tan SL, Wild S, Sladkevicius P, Engmann L, Payne N, et al. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in in vitro fertilization cycles predict the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertil Steril. 1999;71(2):287–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bennett SJ, Waterstone JJ, Cheng WC, Parsons J. Complications of transvaginal ultrasound-directed follicle aspiration: a review of 2670 consecutive procedures. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1993;10(1):72–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tureck RW, Garcia CR, Blasco L, Mastroianni Jr L. Perioperative complications arising after transvaginal oocyte retrieval. Obstet Gynecol. 1993;81(4):590–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dicker D, Ashkenazi J, Feldberg D, Levy T, Dekel A, Ben-Rafael Z. Severe abdominal complications after transvaginal ultrasonographically guided retrieval of oocytes for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Fertil Steril. 1993;59(6):1313–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Roest J, Mous HV, Zeilmaker GH, Verhoeff A. The incidence of major clinical complications in a Dutch transport IVF programme. Hum Reprod Update. 1996;2(4):345–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Govaerts I, Devreker F, Delbaere A, Revelard P, Englert Y. Short-term medical complications of 1500 oocyte retrievals for in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1998;77(2):239–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    El-Toukhy T, Hanna L. Pelvic infection after oocyte retrieval: a preventable complication or an inevitable risk? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26(7):701–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ludwig AK, Glawatz M, Griesinger G, Diedrich K, Ludwig M. Perioperative and post-operative complications of transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval: prospective study of >1000 oocyte retrievals. Hum Reprod. 2006;21(12):3235–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    El-Shawarby S, Margara R, Trew G, Lavery S. A review of complications following transvaginal oocyte retrieval for in-vitro fertilization. Hum Fertil (Cambridge, UK). 2004;7(2):127–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Blanchette H. Obstetric performance of patients after oocyte donation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168(6 Pt 1):1803–7. discussion 7–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Serhal PF, Craft IL. Oocyte donation in 61 patients. Lancet. 1989;1(8648):1185–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Abdalla HI, Billett A, Kan AK, Baig S, Wren M, Korea L, et al. Obstetric outcome in 232 ovum donation pregnancies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1998; 105(3):332–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Soderstrom-Anttila V, Tiitinen A, Foudila T, Hovatta O. Obstetric and perinatal outcome after oocyte donation: comparison with in-vitro fertilization pregnancies. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(2):483–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Soderstrom-Anttila V, Sajaniemi N, Tiitinen A, Hovatta O. Health and development of children born after oocyte donation compared with that of those born after in-vitro fertilization, and parents’ attitudes regarding secrecy. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(7): 2009–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Salha O, Sharma V, Dada T, Nugent D, Rutherford AJ, Tomlinson AJ, et al. The influence of donated gametes on the incidence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Hum Reprod. 1999;14(9):2268–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wiggins DA, Main E. Outcomes of pregnancies achieved by donor egg in vitro fertilization–a comparison with standard in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(6):2002–6. discussion 6–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Sheffer-Mimouni G, Mashiach S, Dor J, Levran D, Seidman DS. Factors influencing the obstetric and perinatal outcome after oocyte donation. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(10):2636–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA. Rare occurrence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in oocyte donors. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1996;52(3):259–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Krieg SA, Henne MB, Westphal LM. Obstetric outcomes in donor oocyte pregnancies compared with advanced maternal age in in vitro fertilization pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2008;90(1):65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA. Pregnancy after age 50: application of oocyte donation to women after natural menopause. Lancet. 1993;341(8841):321–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA. Pregnancy in women 50 or more years of age: outcomes of 22 consecutively established pregnancies from oocyte donation. Fertil Steril. 1995;64(1):111–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Budak E, Garrido N, Soares SR, Melo MA, Meseguer M, Pellicer A, et al. Improvements achieved in an oocyte donation program over a 10-year period: sequential increase in implantation and pregnancy rates and decrease in high-order multiple pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(2):342–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Mirkin S, Gimeno TG, Bovea C, Stadtmauer L, Gibbons WE, Oehninger S. Factors associated with an optimal pregnancy outcome in an oocyte donation program. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20(10): 400–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Knopman J, Krey LC, Lee J, Fino ME, Novetsky AP, Noyes N. Monozygotic twinning: an eight-year experience at a large IVF center. Fertil Steril. 2010;94(2):502–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Jackson RA, Gibson KA, Wu YW, Croughan MS. Perinatal outcomes in singletons following in vitro fertilization: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(3):551–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schieve LA, Ferre C, Peterson HB, Macaluso M, Reynolds MA, Wright VC. Perinatal outcome among singleton infants conceived through assisted reproductive technology in the United States. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(15172846):1144–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Michalas S, Loutradis D, Drakakis P, Milingos S, Papageorgiou J, Kallianidis K, et al. Oocyte donation to women over 40 years of age: pregnancy complications. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996;64(2):175–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Simchen MJ, Yinon Y, Moran O, Schiff E, Sivan E. Pregnancy outcome after age 50. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108(5):1084–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Henne MB, Zhang M, Paroski S, Kelshikar B, Westphal LM. Comparison of obstetric outcomes in recipients of donor oocytes vs. women of advanced maternal age with autologous oocytes. J Reprod Med. 2007;52(7):585–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Duley L. Maternal mortality associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99:547–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sibai B, Dekker G, Kupferminc M. Pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2005;365(9461):785–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Abdalla HI, Wren ME, Thomas A, Korea L. Age of the uterus does not affect pregnancy or implantation rates; a study of egg donation in women of different ages sharing oocytes from the same donor. Hum Reprod. 1997;12(4):827–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Porreco RP, Harden L, Gambotto M, Shapiro H. Expectation of pregnancy outcome among mature women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192(1):38–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Klatsky PC, Delaney SS, Caughey AB, Tran ND, Schattman GL, Rosenwaks Z. The role of embryonic origin in preeclampsia: a comparison of autologous in vitro fertilization and ovum donor pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol. 2010;116(6):1387–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Redman CW, Sargent IL. Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia. Science (New York, NY). 2005;308(5728):1592–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Parham P. NK cells and trophoblasts: partners in pregnancy. J Exp Med. 2004;200(8):951–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Styer AK, Parker HJ, Roberts DJ, Palmer-Toy D, Toth TL, Ecker JL. Placental villitis of unclear etiology during ovum donor in vitro fertilization pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189(4):1184–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Perni SC, Predanic M, Cho JE, Baergen RN. Placental pathology and pregnancy outcomes in donor and non-donor oocyte in vitro fertilization pregnancies. J Perinat Med. 2005;33(1):27–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Gundogan F, Bianchi DW, Scherjon SA, Roberts DJ. Placental pathology in egg donor pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(2):397–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Lo YM, Leung TN, Tein MS, Sargent IL, Zhang J, Lau TK, et al. Quantitative abnormalities of fetal DNA in maternal serum in preeclampsia. Clin Chem. 1999;45(2):184–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Opelz G, Dohler B. Effect of human leukocyte antigen compatibility on kidney graft survival: comparative analysis of two decades. Transplantation. 2007;84(2):137–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Redman CW, Sargent IL. Immunology of pre-eclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63(6): 534–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Einarsson JI, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Gardner MO. Sperm exposure and development of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188(5):1241–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Liu L-P, Huang W, Lu Y-C, Liao A-H. Enhanced maternal anti-fetal immunity contributes to the severity of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2010;63(5):379–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Robillard PY, Hulsey TC, Perianin J, Janky E, Miri EH, Papiernik E. Association of pregnancy-induced hypertension with duration of sexual cohabitation before conception. Lancet. 1994;344(8928):973–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wang JX, Knottnerus A-M, Schuit G, Norman RJ, Chan A, Dekker GA. Surgically obtained sperm, and risk of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Lancet. 2002;359(9307):673–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Zhou CC, Ahmad S, Mi T, Abbasi S, Xia L, Day M-C, et al. Autoantibody from women with preeclampsia induces soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 production via angiotensin type 1 receptor and calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells signaling. Hypertension. 2008;51(4):1010–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Keegan DA, Krey LC, Chang HC, Noyes N. Increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in young recipients of donated oocytes. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(4):776–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Li DK, Wi S. Changing paternity and the risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia in the subsequent pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol. 2000;151(1):57–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Saftlas AF, Levine RJ, Klebanoff MA, Martz KL, Ewell MG, Morris CD, et al. Abortion, changed paternity, and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women. Am J Epidemiol. 2003;157(12):1108–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Kim H, Yang K, Cha S, Song I, Kang I, (eds) (2005) Obstetric outcomes after oocyte donation in patients with premature ovarian failure. In: 21st Annual Meeting of the ESHRE, Copenhagen, Denmark.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Esh-Broder E, Ariel I, Abas-Bashir N, Bdolah Y, Celnikier DH. Placenta accreta is associated with IVF pregnancies: a retrospective chart review. BJOG. 2011;118(9):1084–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Yaron Y, Ochshorn Y, Amit A, Kogosowski A, Yovel I, Lessing JB. Oocyte donation in Israel: a study of 1001 initiated treatment cycles. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(7):1819–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Healy D. Damaged babies from assisted reproductive technologies: focus on the BESST (birth emphasizing a successful singleton at term) outcome. Fertil Steril. 2004;81:512–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Milki AA, Jun SH. Ectopic pregnancy rates with day 3 versus day 5 embryo transfer: a retrospective analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2003;3(1):7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Voullaire L, Collins V, Callaghan T, McBain J, Williamson R, Wilton L. High incidence of complex chromosome abnormality in cleavage embryos from patients with repeated implantation failure. Fertil Steril. 2007;87(5):1053–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Jun SH, Milki AA. Assisted hatching is associated with a higher ectopic pregnancy rate. Fertil Steril. 2004;81(6):1701–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Yovich JL, Turner SR, Murphy AJ. Embryo transfer technique as a cause of ectopic pregnancies in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1985;44(3):318–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Nazari A, Askari HA, Check JH, O'Shaughnessy A. Embryo transfer technique as a cause of ectopic pregnancy in in vitro fertilization. Fertil Steril. 1993;60(5):919–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Pyrgiotis E, Sultan KM, Neal GS, Liu HC, Grifo JA, Rosenwaks Z. Ectopic pregnancies after in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1994;11(2):79–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Clayton HB, Schieve LA, Peterson HB, Jamieson DJ, Reynolds MA, Wright VC. Ectopic pregnancy risk with assisted reproductive technology procedures. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;107(3):595–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Strandell A, Thorburn J, Hamberger L. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in assisted reproduction. Fertil Steril. 1999;71(2):282–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Ng EH, Yeung WS, Ho PC. The presence of hydrosalpinx may not adversely affect the implantation and pregnancy rates in in vitro fertilization treatment. J Assist Reprod Genet. 1997;14(9): 508–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Rosman ER, Keegan DA, Krey L, Liu M, Licciardi F, Grifo JA. Ectopic pregnancy rates after in vitro fertilization: a look at the donor egg population. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(5):1791–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Sauer MV, Kavic SM. Oocyte and embryo donation 2006: reviewing two decades of innovation and controversy. Reprod Biomed Online. 2006;12(2): 153–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Gibbons WE, Cedars M, Ness RB. Toward understanding obstetrical outcome in advanced assisted reproduction: varying sperm, oocyte, and uterine source and diagnosis. Fertil Steril. 2011;95(5):1645–9 e1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    van der Hoorn ML, Scherjon SA, Claas FH. Egg donation pregnancy as an immunological model for solid organ transplantation. Transplant Immunol. 2011;25(2–3):89–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Yaron Y, Johnson KD, Bryant-Greenwood PK, Kramer RL, Johnson MP, Evans MI. Selective termination and elective reduction in twin pregnancies: 10 years experience at a single centre. Hum Reprod. 1998;13(9756315):2301–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Sauer MV, Paulson RJ, Lobo RA. Oocyte donation to women of advanced reproductive age: pregnancy results and obstetrical outcomes in patients 45 years and older. Hum Reprod. 1996;11(8981151):2540–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Unkila-Kallio L, Leminen A, Tiitinen A, Ylikorkala O. Nationwide data on falling incidence of ovarian granulosa cell tumours concomitant with increasing use of ovulation inducers. Hum Reprod. 1998; 13(10):2828–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Zalel Y, Shulman A, Lidor A, Achiron R, Mashiach S, Gamzu R. The local progestational effect of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system: a sonographic and Doppler flow study. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(11):2878–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Fragouli E, Escalona A, Gutierrez-Mateo C, Tormasi S, Alfarawati S, Sepulveda S, et al. Comparative genomic hybridization of oocytes and first polar bodies from young donors. Reprod Biomed Online. 2009;19(2):228–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Treff NR, Levy B, Su J, Northrop LE, Tao X, Scott Jr RT. SNP microarray-based 24 chromosome aneuploidy screening is significantly more consistent than FISH. Mol Hum Reprod. 2010;16(8):583–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Davies MJ, Moore VM, Willson KJ, Van Essen P, Priest K, Scott H, et al. Reproductive technologies and the risk of birth defects. N Engl J Med. 2012;366(19):1803–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Gobert B, Barbarino-Monnier P, Guillet-May F, Bene MC, Faure GC. Anti-ovary antibodies after attempts at human in vitro fertilization induced by follicular puncture rather than hormonal stimulation. J Reprod Fertil. 1992;96(1):213–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Brinton LA, Scoccia B, Moghissi KS, Westhoff CL, Althuis MD, Mabie JE, et al. Breast cancer risk associated with ovulation-stimulating drugs. Hum Reprod. 2004;19(9):2005–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Lerner-Geva L, Keinan-Boker L, Blumstein T, Boyko V, Olmar L, Mashiach S, et al. Infertility, ovulation induction treatments and the incidence of breast cancer–a historical prospective cohort of Israeli women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 100(2):201–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Potashnik G, Lerner-Geva L, Genkin L, Chetrit A, Lunenfeld E, Porath A. Fertility drugs and the risk of breast and ovarian cancers: results of a long-term follow-up study. Fertil Steril. 1999;71(5):853–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Orgeas CC, Sanner K, Hall P, Conner P, Holte J, Nilsson SJ, et al. Breast cancer incidence after hormonal infertility treatment in Sweden: a cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200(1):72 e1–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Burkman RT, Tang MT, Malone KE, Marchbanks PA, McDonald JA, Folger SG, et al. Infertility drugs and the risk of breast cancer: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Women’s Contraceptive and Reproductive Experiences Study. Fertil Steril. 2003; 79(4):844–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Zreik TG, Mazloom A, Chen Y, Vannucci M, Pinnix CC, Fulton S, et al. Fertility drugs and the risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis and review. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;124(1):13–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Venn A, Healy D, McLachlan R. Cancer risks associated with the diagnosis of infertility. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;17(2):343–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Kashyap S, Moher D, Fung MF, Rosenwaks Z. Assisted reproductive technology and the incidence of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103(4):785–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Modan B, Ron E, Lerner-Geva L, Blumstein T, Menczer J, Rabinovici J, et al. Cancer incidence in a cohort of infertile women. Am J Epidemiol. 1998;147(11):1038–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Althuis MD, Moghissi KS, Westhoff CL, Scoccia B, Lamb EJ, Lubin JH, et al. Uterine cancer after use of clomiphene citrate to induce ovulation. Am J Epidemiol. 2005;161(7):607–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Ron E, Lunenfeld B, Menczer J, Blumstein T, Katz L, Oelsner G, et al. Cancer incidence in a cohort of infertile women. Am J Epidemiol. 1987;125(5): 780–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Ameratunga D, Weston G, Osianlis T, Catt J, Vollenhoven B. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor eggs in post-menopausal women: are there differences in pregnancy outcomes in women with premature ovarian failure (POF) compared with women with physiological age-related menopause? J Assist Reprod Genet. 2009;26(9–10):511–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Budak E, Garrido N, Soares SR, Melo MA, Meseguer M, Pellicer A, et al. Improvements achieved in an oocyte donation program over a 10-year period: sequential increase in implantation and pregnancy rates and decrease in high-order multiple pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(2):342–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Mirkin S, Gimeno TG, Bovea C, Stadtmauer L, Gibbons WE, Oehninger S. Factors associated with an optimal pregnancy outcome in an oocyte donation program. J Assist Reprod Genet. 2003;20(10): 400–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and InfertilityTexas Children’s Hospital Pavilion for WomenHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations