Advertisement

Forest Canopies as Earth’s Support Systems: Priorities for Research and Conservation

  • Reinmar Seidler
  • Kamaljit S. Bawa
  • Margaret Lowman
  • Nalini M. Nadkarni
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter we address three sets of questions about the present and future role of canopy science within the larger context of forest science. First we review research that either promotes or constrains canopy science as a distinct field. Second, we examine what is known about how canopies are being altered by human use of tropical forests, and consider priorities for research in human interactions with forest canopies. Third, we ask how canopy science can help address the urgent need to understand patterns of human impacts and global environmental changes, specifically in tropical forest ecosystems. It is evident from this volume that canopy researchers are shifting their priorities toward forest canopy conservation by embracing whole-forest approaches with reference to ecosystem services, forest health, climate change, sustainability science, economics, education, and the social sciences.

Keywords

Forest conservation Stratification Ecosystem services Disturbance Capacity building 

Notes

Acknowledgments

 The Bangalore workshop and the work on this manuscript were supported by grants from the U.S. National Science Foundation (DEB 0542130 and DEB 0956301).

References

  1. Agarwal A, Chhatre A, Hardin R (2008) Changing governance of the world’s forests. Science 320:1460–1462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal A et al (2012) Cool heads for a hot world–Social sciences under a changing sky. Global Environmental Change 22:329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton PS, Hall P (1992) Comparisons of structure among mixed dipterocarp forests of north–western Borneo. J Ecol 80:459–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashton PS, Seidler RG (in press) Reflections on the forests of tropical asia: lest the memory fade. Arnold Arboretum at Harvard University/Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew/Natural History Publications Sdn. Bhd., Cambridge, MA/London/BorneoGoogle Scholar
  5. Asner G, Martin RE, Knapp DE et al (2011) Spectroscopy of canopy chemicals in humid tropical forests. Remote Sens Environ 115:3587–3598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker PJ, Wilson JS (2000) A quantitative technique for the identification of canopy stratification in tropical and temperate forests. For Ecol Manage 127:77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balooni K, Singh K (2007) Prospects and problems of afforestation of wastelands in India: A synthesis of macro- and micro-perspectives. Geoforum. doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2007.02.007 Google Scholar
  8. Barrett CB, Gibson CC, Hoffman G, Mc Cubbins MD (2006) The complex links between governance and biodiversity. Conserv Biol 20:1358–1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Basset Y et al (2003) Vertical stratification of arthropod assemblages. In: Basset Y, Novotny V, Miller S, Kitching RL (eds) Arthropods of tropical forests: spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Bawa KS (1990) Plant pollinator interactions in tropical rain forests. Ann Rev Ecol Syst 21:399–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bawa KS, Balachander G, Raven P (2008) A case for new institutions. Science 319:136Google Scholar
  12. Bawa KS, Dayanandan S (1998) Climate change and tropical forest genetic resources. Clim Change 23:449–466Google Scholar
  13. Bawa KS, Kress WJ, Nadkarni NM, Lele S, Raven PH, Janzen H, Lugo AE, Ashton PS, Lovejoy TE (2004) Tropical ecosystems into the 21st. Science 306:227–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernard E (2001) Vertical stratification of bat communities in primary forests of Central Amazon, Brazil. J Trop Ecol 17:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cadenasso ML et al (2003) A framework for a theory of ecological boundaries. Bioscience 53:750–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavaleri MA et al (2010) Height is more important than light in determining leaf morphology in a tropical forest. Ecology 91:1730–1739PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chazdon RL (2008) Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science 320:1458–1460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark DB et al (2008) First direct landscape scale measurement of tropical rain forest leaf area index, a key driver of global primary productivity. Ecol Lett 11:163–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cochrane MA (2003) Fire science for rainforests. Nature 421(6926):913–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Costa MH, Foley JA (2000) Combined effects of deforestation and doubled atmospheric CO2 concentrations on the climate of Amazonia. J Clim 13:18–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cuddington K, Beisner BE (2005) Ecological paradigms lost: roots of theory change. Elsevier Academic, Burlington/LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. Davidar P et al (2010) Assessing the extent and causes of forest degradation in India: Where do we stand? Biol Cons 143:2937–2944Google Scholar
  23. DeVries PJ et al (1997) Species diversity in vertical, horizontal, and temporal dimensions of a fruit–feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest. Biol J Linn Soc 62:343–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Devy MS, Ganesh T (2003) Canopy science and its relevance to India. Curr Sci 85:581–584Google Scholar
  25. Diez JM et al (2012) Forecasting phenology: from species variability to community patterns. Ecol Lett 15:545–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ellison D et al (2011) On the forest cover–water yield debate: from demand– to supply–side thinking. Glob Chang Biol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02589.x Google Scholar
  27. Ellwood F, Manica A, Foster WA (2009) Stochastic and deterministic processes jointly structure tropical arthropod communities. Ecol Lett 12:277–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP et al (2005) Global consequences of land use. Science 309:570–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gonzalez P et al (2010) Forest carbon densities and uncertainties from Lidar, QuickBird, and field measurements in California. Rem Sens Envi 114:1561–1575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Grelle CEV (2003) Forest structure and vertical stratification of small mammals in a secondary Atlantic forest, Southeastern Brazil. Stud Neotrop Fauna Environ 38:81–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Grimbacher PS, Stork NE (2007) Vertical stratification of feeding guilds and body size in beetle assemblages from an Australian tropical rainforest. Austral Ecol 32:77–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guardiola-Claramonte M et al (2008) Local hydrologic effects of introducing non–native vegetation in a tropical catchment. Ecohydrology 1:13–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hansen MC et al (2008) Humid tropical forest clearing from 2000 to 2005 quantified by using multitemporal and multiresolution remotely sensed data. Proc Nat Acad Sci 105:9439–9444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Harris N et al (2012) Progress toward a consensus on carbon emissions from tropical deforestation. Policy Brief. Winrock International, WHOI & Meridian InstituteGoogle Scholar
  35. Hobbs RJ et al (2006) Novel ecosystems: theoretical and management aspects of the new ecological world order. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hodgkison R (2004) Habitat structure, wing morphology, and the vertical stratification of Malaysian fruit bats (Megachiroptera: Pteropodidae). J Trop Ecol 20:667–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Intachat J, Holloway JD (2000) Is there stratification in diversity or preferred flight height of geometroid moths in Malaysian lowland tropical forest? Biodivers Conserv 9:1417–1439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Jain M, Balakrishnan R (2012) Does acoustic adaptation drive vertical stratification? A test in a tropical cricket assemblage. Behav Ecol 23:343–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kang SH, Bawa KS (2003) Effects of successional status, habit, sexual systems, and pollinators on flowering patterns in tropical rain forest trees. Am J Bot 90:865–876PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Koltunov A et al (2009) Selective logging changes forest phenology in the Brazilian Amazon: evidence from MODIS image time series analysis. Remote Sens Environ 113:2431–2440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Komposch H et al (2000) Diversity and vertical distribution of lichens in a Venezuelan tropical lowland rain forest. Selbyana 21:11–24Google Scholar
  42. Lal R (2005) Forest soils and carbon sequestration. For Ecol Manage 220:242–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laurance WF, Kakul T, Keenan RJ, Sayer J, Passingan S, Clements GR, Villegas F, Sodhi NS (2010) Predatory corporations, failing governance, and the fate of forests in Papua New Guinea. Conservation Letters, Published online:16 Dec 2010, dOI:10.1111/j.1755–263X.2010.00156.xGoogle Scholar
  44. Lele S, Wilshusen P, Brockington R, Seidler R, Bawa KS (2010) Beyond exclusion: alternative approaches to biodiversity conservation in the developing tropics. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lodge DJ, Cantrell S (1995) Fungal communities in wet tropical variation in time and space. Can J Bot 73(supp. 1):S1391–S1398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Longino JT, Nadkarni NM (1990) A comparison of ground and canopy leaf litter ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in a neotropical montane forest. Psyche 97:81–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lowman MD (1999) Life in the treetops. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  48. Lowman MD (2009) Canopy research in the twenty-first century: a review of arboreal research. J Trop Ecol 50:125–136Google Scholar
  49. Lowman MD, Bouricius B, Coley P, Halle F, Nadkarni NM, Parker G, Saterson K, Wright J (1995) What’s up? Perspectives from the 1st international forest canopy conference at Sarasota FL. Selbyana 26:1–11Google Scholar
  50. Lugo AE (2009) The emerging era of novel tropical forests. Biotropica 41(5):589–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Makarieva AM, Gorshkov VG, Li BL (2009) Precipitation on land versus distance from the ocean: evidence for a forest pump of atmospheric moisture. Ecol Complex 6:302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Malhi Y (2010) The carbon balance of tropical forest regions, 1990–2005. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Martinez-Garza C, Howe HF (2003) Restoring tropical diversity: beating the time tax on species loss. J Appl Ecol 40(3):423–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Mawdsley NA, Stork NE (1997) Host–specificity and the effective specialization of tropical canopy beetles. In: Stork NE, Adis J, Didham RK (eds) Canopy arthropods. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  55. Mitchell A, Secoy WK, Jackson T (eds) (2002) Global canopy handbook. Global Canopy Programme, Oxford, UKGoogle Scholar
  56. Motzer T (2005) Micrometeorological aspects of a tropical mountain forest. Agr Forest Meteorol 135(1):230–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Murcia C (1995) Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends Ecol Evol 10:58–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nadkarni NM (2001) Enhancement of forest canopy research, education, and conservation in the new millennium. Plant Ecol 153:361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nadkarni NM, Parker GG (1994) A profile of forest canopy science and scientists–who we are, what we want to know, and obstacles we face: results of an international survey. Selbyana 15:38–50Google Scholar
  60. Nadkarni M, Parker GG, Lowman MD (2011) Forest canopy studies as an emerging field of science. Ann Forest Sci 68:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), India (2010) Wastelands atlas of India. Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  62. Novotny V et al (2007) Low beta diversity of herbivorous insects in tropical forests. Nature 448Google Scholar
  63. Novotny V et al (2002) Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest. Nature 416:841–844PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Novotny V et al (2006) Why are there so many species of herbivorous insects in tropical rainforests? Science 313:1115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ostrom E (2000) People and forests: communities, institutions, and governance. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  66. Ozanne CMP et al (2003) Biodiversity meets the atmosphere: a global view of forest canopies. Science 301:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Parker GG, Brown MJ (2000) Forest canopy stratification—is it useful? Am Nat 155(4)Google Scholar
  68. Pau S et al (2011) Predicting phenology by integrating ecology, evolution and climate science. Glob Chang Biol 17:3633–3643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pearson DL (1971) Vertical stratification of birds in a tropical dry forest. Condor 73:46–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Phelps J, Webb E, Agarwal A (2010) Does REDD + threaten to recentralize forest governance? Science 328:312–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Popma J et al (1988) Patterns in the vertical structure of the tropical lowland rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. Vegetatio 74:81–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Porter AL, Rafols I (2009) Is science becoming more interdisciplinary? Measuring and mapping six research fields over time. Scientometrics 81(3):719–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Powers TO et al (2009) Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest. Mol Ecol. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2008.04075.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Ravindranath NH et al (2012) Deforestation and forest degradation in India – implications for REDD+. Current Sci 102(8):1117–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ray D et al (2005) Micrometeorological and canopy controls of fire susceptibility in a forested Amazon landscape. Ecol App. 15(5):1664–1678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Richards PW (1996) The tropical rain forest: an ecological study, 2nd edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  77. Ricklefs RE (2008) Disintegration of the ecological community. Am Nat 172(6):741–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rodgers DJ, Kitching RL (1998) Vertical stratification of rainforest collembolan (Collembola: Insecta) assemblages: description of ecological patterns and hypotheses concerning their generation. Ecography 21:392–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sanbord AF et al (2011) Thermal adaptation and diversity in tropical ecosystems: evidence from cicadas (Hemiptera, Cicadidae). PLoS One 6(12):e29368. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029368 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Scharlemann J, Laurance WF (2008) How green are biofuels? Science 319:43–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Schulze CH et al (2001) Understorey versus canopy: patterns of vertical stratification and diversity among Lepidoptera in a Bornean rain forest. Plant Ecol 153:133–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Smith AP (1973) Stratification of temperature and tropical forests. Am Nat 107(957):671–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sobek S et al (2009) Canopy vs. understory: does tree diversity affect bee and wasp communities and their natural enemies across forest strata? For Ecol Manag 258:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Solomon D et al (2007) Long–term impacts of anthropogenic perturbations on dynamics and speciation of organic carbon in tropical forest and subtropical grassland ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 13:1–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stenchly K et al (2012) Spider species richness in cocoa agroforestry systems, comparing vertical strata, local management and distance to forest. Agri Ecosys Environ 149:189–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stork NE et al (2009) Vulnerability and resilience of tropical forest species to land–use change. Conserv Biol 23(6):1438–1447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Strayer DL et al (2003) A classification of ecological boundaries. Bioscience 53(8):723–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sukhdev P (2011) Putting a price on nature: the economics of ecosystems and biodiversity. Solutions 1:34–43Google Scholar
  89. Szarzynski J, Anhuf D (2001) Micrometeorological conditions and canopy energy exchanges of a neotropical rain forest (Surumoni–Crane Project, Venezuela). Plant Ecology 153:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tregidgo DJ et al (2010) Vertical stratification responses of an arboreal dung beetle species to tropical forest fragmentation in Malaysia. Biotropica 425:521–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. UN-FAO (2010) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010: Main Report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  92. Vittor AY et al (2006) The effect of deforestation on the human–biting rate of Anopheles darlingi, the primary vector of falciparum malaria in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74(1):3–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Wallace AR (1878) Tropical nature and other essays. Macmillan, New York/LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Walther BA (2002) Vertical stratification and use of vegetation and light habitats by neotropical forest birds. J Ornithol 143:64–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Whitmore TC (1984) A vegetation map of Malesia at scale 1:5 million. J Biogeog 11(6):461–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wood TE, Cavaleri MA, Reed C (2012) Tropical forest carbon balance in a warmer world: a critical review spanning microbial– to ecosystem–scale processes. Biol Rev 87(4):912–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Wright SJ (2010) The future of tropical forests. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1195:1–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinmar Seidler
    • 1
  • Kamaljit S. Bawa
    • 2
  • Margaret Lowman
    • 3
  • Nalini M. Nadkarni
    • 4
  1. 1.University of MassachusettsBostonUSA
  2. 2.Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE)BangaloreIndia
  3. 3.North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, North Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA
  4. 4.Center for Science and Mathematics EducationUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations