Birds of the “Canopy”: Historical Perspective, Current Trends, and Future Directions

  • Vivek Ramachandran
  • T. Ganesh


In structurally complex tropical forests, an understanding of forest ecosystems must address biodiversity and community interactions at all levels (Lowman and Rinker 2004). The structural complexity, species diversity, fluctuations in microclimate, and resource availability separate the canopy from other strata. Canopy bird communities include important functional groups, such as seed dispersers, pollinators, and predators (Howe 1977; Nadkarni and Matelson 1989; Holbrook and Smith 2000). In addition, many long-distance and elevational migrants use the canopies, and an understanding of their ecology, distribution, and abundance is necessary for their conservation (Loiselle 1987; Anderson 2009).


Canopy Sampling Conservation Birds Crane Walkways History 



We thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for funding, Tamil Nadu Forest Department for permits, and Tamil Nadu Electricity Board for logistics. Noragric, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, and Sir Dorabji Tata Trust provided a fellowship to RV during the preparation of this chapter.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Royal EnclaveBangaloreIndia
  2. 2.Manipal.eduManipal UniversityManipalIndia

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