Tubulointerstitial Diseases

  • Stephen M. Bonsib
Part of the Atlas of Anatomic Pathology book series (AAP)


Tubulointerstitial diseases are the most common causes of acute and chronic renal failure. They may be classified in several different ways. An etiologic classification and classification by pattern of injury are probably the most common strategies. Each has certain limitations; for instance, the etiology of many tubulointerstitial diseases is not known. Conversely, some diseases have multiple patterns of injury, thus might be placed in more than one category. The author has chosen to use a combination of pattern of injury and etiology when the latter has certain diagnostically distinctive gross or microscopic features.


Tuberculosis Pancreatitis Diarrhea Caffeine Oxalate 


General: Books and Book Chapters

  1. Bonsib SM. Non-neoplastic disease of the kidney. In: Bostwick DG, Cheng L, editors. Urologic surgical pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier; 2008. p. 1–76.Google Scholar
  2. Colvin RB. Diagnostic pathology: kidney diseases. Manitoba: Amirsys; 2011.Google Scholar
  3. D’Agati VD, Jennette JC, Silva FG. Non-neoplastic kidney diseases. Washington, D.C.: American Registry of Pathology; 2005.Google Scholar
  4. Fogo AB, Kashgarian M. Diagnostic atlas of renal pathology. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Sanders; 2012.Google Scholar
  5. Sinniah R, Churg J, Sobin LH. Renal disease classification and atlas of infectious and tropical diseases. Chicago: American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press; 1988.Google Scholar

Acute Tubular Injury

  1. Cocco TJ, Klasner AE. Drug-induced rhabdomyolysis. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2004;16:206–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Haas M, Spargo BH, Wit E-JC, Meehan SM. Etiologies and outcome of acute renal insufficiency in older adults: a renal biopsy study of 259 cases. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;35:433–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Hall AM, Hendry BM, Nitsch D, Connolly JO. Tenofovir-associated kidney toxicity in HIV-infected patients: a review of the literature. Am J Kidney Dis. 2011;57:773–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Herlitz LC, Mohan S, Stokes MB, et al. Tenofovir nephrotoxicity: acute tubular necrosis with distinctive clinical, pathological, and mitochondrial abnormalities. Kidney Int. 2010;78:1171–7.Google Scholar
  5. Kocovski L, Duflou J. Can renal acute tubular necrosis be differentiated from autolysis at autopsy? J Forensic Sci. 2009;54:439–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Mehta RL, Chertow GM. Acute renal failure definitions and classification: a time for change? J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14:2178–87.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Rosen S, Stillman IE. Acute tubular necrosis is a syndrome of physiologic and pathologic dissociation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;19:871–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Solez K, Morel-Maroger L, Sraer JD. The morphology of “acute tubular necrosis” in man: analysis of 57 renal biopsies and a comparison with the glycerol model. Medicine. 1979;58:362–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Thompson PD, Clarkson P, Karas RH. Statin-associated myopathy. J Am Med Assoc. 2003;289:1681–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Vanderholder R, Sever MS, Erek E, Lamiere N. Rhabdomyolysis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2000;11:1553–61.Google Scholar

Acute and Chronic Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

  1. Abuelo JG. Renal failure caused by chemicals, foods, plants, animal venoms and misuse of drugs: an overview. Arch Intern Med. 1990;150:505–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bacchetta J, Dubourg L, Juillard L, Cochat P. Non-drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24:2291–300.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bhandari S, Kalowski S, Collett P, et al. Karyomegalic nephropathy: an uncommon cause of progressive renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002;17:1914–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheuk W, Chan JKC. IgG4-related sclerosing disease: a critical appraisal of an evolving clinicopathologic entity. Adv Anat Pathol. 2010;17:303–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cooper K, Bennett WM. Nephrotoxicity of common drugs used in clinical practice. Arch Intern Med. 1987;147:1213–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornell LD. IgG4-related kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2012;21:279–88.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cosyns J-P, Jadoul M, Squifflet J-P, et al. Chinese herbs nephropathy: a clue to Balkan endemic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 1994;45:1680–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Councilman WT. Acute interstitial nephritis. J Exp Med. 1898;3:393–418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Debelle FD, Vanherweghem J-L, Nortier JL. Aristolochic acid nephropathy: a worldwide problem. Kidney Int. 2008;74:158–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. DeBroe ME. Chinese herbs nephropathy and Balkan endemic nephropathy: toward a single entity, aristolochic acid nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2012;81:513–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Depierreux M, Van Damme B, Vanden Houte K, Vanherweghem JL. Pathologic aspects of a newly described nephropathy related to the prolonged use of Chinese herbs. Am J Kidney Dis. 1994;24:172–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixt MP, Scott KM, Bracamonte E, et al. Kimura disease with advanced renal damage with anti-tubular basement membrane antibody. Pediatr Nephrol. 2004;19:1404–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dobrin RS, Vernier RL, Fish AJ. Acute esoinophilic interstitial nephritis and renal failure with bone marrow-lymph node granulomas and anterior uveitis. Am J Med. 1975;59:325–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Heptinstall RH. Interstitial nephritis: a brief review. Am J Pathol. 1976;83:214–33.Google Scholar
  15. Herlitz LC, Mohan S, Stokes MB. Tenofovir nephrotoxicity: acute tubular necrosis with distinctive clinical, pathological, and mitochondrial abnormalities. Kidney Int. 2010;78:1171–7.Google Scholar
  16. Jao W. Iatrogenic renal disease as revealed by renal biopsy. Semin Diagn Pathol. 1988;5:63–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamblum N, Markowitz GS, Tanji N, et al. Idiopathic hypocomplementemic interstitial nephritis with extensive tubulointerstitial deposits. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001;37:388–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Laberke H-C, Bohle A. Acute interstitial nephritis: correlations between clinical and morphological findings. Clin Nephrol. 1980;14:263–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Luyckx VA, Naicker S. Acute kidney injury associated with the use of traditional medicines. Nat Clin Pract. 2008;4:664–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Maripuri S, Grande JP, Osborn TG, et al. Renal involvement in primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a clinicopathologic study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2009;4:1423–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. McCluskey RT. Immunologically mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis. Contemp Issues Nephrol. 1983;10:121–50.Google Scholar
  22. Mihatsch MJ, Torhorst J, Steinmann E, et al. The morphologic diagnosis of analgesic (phenacetin) abuse. Pathol Res Pract. 1979;164:68–79.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Monga G, Banfi G, Salvadore M, et al. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: report of 3 new cases and review of the literature. Clin Nephrol. 2006;5:349–55.Google Scholar
  24. Paller MS. Drug-induced nephropathies. Med Clin North Am. 1990;74:909–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Park MH, D’Agati V, Appel GB, et al. Tubulointerstitial disease in lupus nephritis: relationship to immune deposits, interstitial inflammation, glomerular changes, renal function and prognosis. Nephron. 1986;44:309–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Paueksakon P, Revelo M, Lee SM, et al. Acute renal failure in a 64-year-old white man. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;36:669–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ren H, Wang W-M, Chen X-N, et al. Renal involvement and followup of 130 patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome. J Rheumatol. 2008;35:278–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Rossert J. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis. Kidney Int. 2001;6:804–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Skopouli FN. Kidney injury in Sjögren’s syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16 suppl 6suppl 6:63–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Spoendlin M, Moch H, Brunner F, et al. Karyomegalic interstitial nephritis: further support for a distinct entity and evidence for a genetic defect. Am J Kidney Dis. 1995;25:242–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Tay AHN, Ren E-C, Murugasu B, et al. Membranous nephropathy with anti-tubular basement membrane antibody may be X-linked. Pediatr Nephrol. 2000;14:747–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Vadivel N, Trikudanathan S, Singh AK. Analgesic nephropathy. Kidney Int. 2007;72:517–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Vaseemuddin M, Schwartz MM, Dunea G, Kraus MA. Idiopathic hypocomplementemic immune-complex-mediated tubulointerstitial nephritis. Nat Clin Pract. 2005;3:50–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Watson SJW, Jenkins DAS, Bellamy COS. Nephropathy in IgG4-related systemic disease. Am J Surg Pathol. 2006;30:1472–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Yamaguchi Y, Kanetsuna Y, Honda K, et al. Characteristic tubulointerstitial nephritis in IgG4-related disease. Hum Pathol. 2012;43:536–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang C-S, Lin C-H, Chang S-H, Hsu H-C. Rapidly progressive fibrosing interstitial nephritis associated with Chinese herbal drugs. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000;35:313–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Granulomatous Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

  1. Bijol V, Mendez GP, Nosé V, Rennke HG. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis: a clinicopathologic study of 46 cases from a single institution. Int J Surg Pathol. 2006;14:57–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brause M, Magnusson K, Degenhardt S, et al. Renal involvement in sarcoid: a report of 6 cases. Clin Nephrol. 2002;57:142–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Casella FJ, Allon M. The kidney in sarcoidosis. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1993;3:1555–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cohen MS. Granulomatous nephritis. Urol Clin North Am. 1986;13:6477–659.Google Scholar
  5. Dobyan DC, Truong LD, Eknoyan G. Renal malakoplakia revisited. Am J Kidney Dis. 1993;22:243–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Esparza AR, McKay DB, Cronan JJ, et al. Renal parenchymal malakoplakia: histologic spectrum and its relationship to megalocytic interstitial nephritis and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Am J Surg Pathol. 1989;13:225–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Farer LS, Lowell AM, Meador MP. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 1979;109:205–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hartmann DS, Davis Jr CJ, Goldman ST, et al. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: sonographic-pathologic correlation of 16 cases. J Ultrasound Med. 1984;3:481.Google Scholar
  9. Jahnukainen T, Ala-Houhala M, Karikoski R, et al. Clinical outcome and occurrence of uveitis in children with idiopathic tubulointerstitial nephritis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:291–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Joss N, Morris S, Young B, Geddes C. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2007;2:222–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Magil AB. Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis with granulomas. Hum Pathol. 1983;13:36–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Malek RS, Elder JS. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: a clinical analysis of 26 cases and of the literature. J Urol. 1978;119:589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Narayana AS. Overview of renal tuberculosis. Urology. 1982;19:231–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Parsons MA, Harris SC, Longstaff AJ, et al. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis: a pathological clinical and aetiologic analysis of 87 cases. Diagn Histopathol. 1983;6:203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Viero RM, Cavallo T. Granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:1347–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Yanagihara T, Kitamura H, Aki K, et al. Serial renal biopsies in three girls with tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome. Pediatr Nephrol. 2009;24:1159–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Acute and Chronic Pyelonephritis

  1. Arant Jr BS. Vesicoureteral reflux and renal injury. Am J Kidney Dis. 1991;17:491–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Dillon MJ, Goonaskera CDA. Reflux nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1998;9:2377–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Edelstein H, McCabe RE. Perinephric abscess: modern diagnosis and treatment in 47 cases. Medicine. 1988;67:118–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hodson CJ. Reflux nephropathy: a personal historical review. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1981;137:451–62.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Klahr S. Obstructive nephropathy. Kidney Int. 1998;54:286–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Michigan S. Genitourinary fungal infections. J Urol. 1976;116:390–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ransley PG, Risdon RA. Renal papillary morphology in infants and children. Urol Res. 1975;3:111–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Roberts JA. Pyelonephritis, cortical abscess and perinephric abscess. Urol Clin North Am. 1986;13:637–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Shahatto N, al Awadhi NZ, Ghazali S. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: surgical Implications. Br J Urol. 1990;66:572–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Sheinfeld J, Erturk E, Spataro RF, et al. Perinephric abscess: current concepts. J Urol. 1987;137:191–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Shokeir AA, El-Azab M, Mohsen T, El-Diasty T. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: a 15 year experience with 20 cases. Urology. 1997;49:343–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Wise GJ, Silver D. Fungal infections of the genitourinary system. J Urol. 1993;149:1377–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Viruses and Selected Other Infectious Etiologies

  1. Asim M, Chong-Lopez A, Nickeleit V. Adenovirus infection of a renal allograft. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;41:696–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bracomonte E, Leca N, Smith KD, et al. Tubular basement membrane immune deposits in association with BK polyomavirus nephropathy. Am J Transplant. 2007;7:1552–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dharnidarka VR, Abdulnour HA, Araya CE. The BK virus in renal transplant recipients: review of pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:1763–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Drachenberg CB, Beskow CO, Cangro CB, et al. Human polyoma virus in renal biopsies: morphological findings and correlation with urine cytology. Hum Pathol. 1999;30:970–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Fetterman GH, Sherman FE, Fabrizio NS, et al. Generalized cytomegalic inclusion disease. Arch Pathol. 1968;86:86–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ito M, Hirabayashi N, Uno Y, et al. Necrotizing tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with adenovirus infection. Hum Pathol. 1991;2:1225–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kotton CN, Fishman JA. Viral infections in the renal transplant recipient. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1758–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Liptak P, Kemeny E, Ivanyi B. Primer: histopathology of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in renal allografts. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006;2:631–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Nickeleit V, Hirsch HH, Binet IF, et al. Polyomavirus infection of renal allograft recipients: from latent infection to manifest disease. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1999;10:1080–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Platt JL, Sibley RK, Michael AF. Interstitial nephritis associated with cytomegalovirus infection. Kidney Int. 1985;28:550–2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Rosen S, Harmon W, Krensky AM, et al. Tubulointerstitial nephritis associated with polyomavirus (BK type) infection. N Engl J Med. 1983;308:1192–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Storsley L, Gibson IW. Adenovirus interstitial nephritis and rejection in an allograft. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;22:1423–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Monoclonal Light Chain–Associated Tubulointerstitial Diseases

  1. El Hamel C, Thierry A, Trouillas P, et al. Crystal-storing histiocytosis with renal Fanconi syndrome: pathological and molecular characteristics compared with classical myeloma-associated Fanconi syndrome. Nephrol Dial Transpl. 2010;25:2982–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Elliot MR, Cortese C, Moreno-Aspitia A, Dwyer JP. Plasma cell dyscrasia causing light chain tubulopathy without Fanconi syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55:1136–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Gu X, Barrios R, Cartwright J, et al. Light chain crystal deposition as a manifestation of plasma cell dyscrasias: the role of immunoelectron microscopy. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:270–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Keller LS, Faull RJ, Smith P, et al. Crystalloid deposits in the kidney. Nephrology. 2005;10:81–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Korbet SM, Schwartz MM. Multiple myeloma. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:2533–45.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kurita N, Tanaka M, Tnanaka S, et al. Glomerular capillary light chain thrombi in multiple myeloma. Kidney Int. 2011;80:1378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Larsen CP, Bell JM, Harris AA, et al. The morphologic spectrum and clinical significance of light chain proximal tubulopathy with and without crystal formation. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:1462–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Sethi S, Cuiffo BP, Pinkus GS, Rennke HG. Crystal-storing histiocytosis involving the kidney in a low grade B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:183–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Start DA, Silva FG, Davis LD, et al. Myeloma cast nephropathy: immunohistochemical and lectin studies. Mod Pathol. 1988;1:336–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Winearls CG. Acute myeloma kidney. Kidney Int. 1995;48:1347–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Lymphoproliferative Disorders

  1. Brouland JP, Meeus F, Rossert J, et al. Primary bilateral B-cell renal lymphoma: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Kidney Dis. 1994;24:586–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ferry JA, Harris NL, Papanicolaou N, Young RH. Lymphoma of the kidney: a report of 11 cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 1995;19:134–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Shanknovich R, Francois DJ, Cattoretti G, et al. A rare cause of nephrotic syndrome. Am J Kidney Dis. 2002;39:892–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Crystal- and Pigment-Associated Tubulointerstitial Diseases

  1. Adler S, Weening J. A case of acute renal failure. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;1:158–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aikhunaizi AM, Chan L. Secondary oxalosis: a cause of delayed renal function in the setting of acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1996;11:2320–6.Google Scholar
  3. Batuman V. Lead nephropathy, gout and hypertension. Am J Med Sci. 1993;305:241–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck LH. Requiem for gouty nephropathy. Kidney Int. 1986;30:280–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bonsib SM, Horvath Jr F. Multinucleated podocytes in a child with nephrotic syndrome and Fanconi’s syndrome: a unique clue to the diagnosis. Am J Kidney Dis. 1999;34:966–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Boss GR, Seegmiller JE. Hyperuricemia and gout. N Engl J Med. 1979;300:1459–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cameron JS, Moro R, Smmonds HA. Gout, uric acid and purine metabolism in pediatric nephrology. Pediatr Nephrol. 1993;7:105–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cartery C, Faguer S, Karras A. Oxalate nephropathy with chronic pancreatitis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011;6:1895–902.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen H, Liu Z, Li L. Acute renal failure and anemia. Kidney Int. 2008;73:895–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochat P. Primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Kidney Int. 1999;55:2533–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Drenik EJ, Stanley TM, Border WA, et al. Renal damage with intestinal bypass. Ann Intern Med. 1978;89:594–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Foreman JW. Cystinosis. Semin Nephrol. 1989;9:62–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Haggitt RC, Pitcock JA. Renal medullary calcifications: a light and electron microscopic study. J Urol. 1971;106:342–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Harambat J, Fargue S, Acquaviva C, et al. Genotype-phenotype correlation in primary hyperoxaluria type 1: the p.Gly170Arg AGXT mutation is associated with a better prognosis. Kidney Int. 2010;77:443–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Herlitz LC, D’Agati VD, Markowitz GS. Crystalline nephropathies. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2012;136:713–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hollenberg NK, McDonald FD, Cotran R. Irreversible acute oliguric renal failure: a complication of methoxyflurane anesthesia. N Engl J Med. 1972;296:877–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hoppe B, Beck BB, Milliner DS. The primary hyperoxalurias. Kidney Int. 2009;75:1264–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ibels LS, Alfrey AC, Huffer WE, et al. Calcifications in end stage kidneys. Am J Med. 1981;71:33–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kraut JA, Kurtz I. Toxic alcohol ingestions: clinical features, diagnosis, and management. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:208–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kummeling MTM, de Jong BWD, Laffeber C, et al. Tubular and interstitial nephrocalcinosis. J Urol. 2007;178:1097–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Linnane JW, Burry AF, Emmerson BT. Urate deposits in the renal medulla: prevalence and association. Nephron. 1981;29:216–22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Markowitz GS, Stokes MB, Radhakrishnan J, D’Agati VD. Acute phosphate nephropathy following oral sodium phosphate bowel purge: an unrecognized cause of chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:3389–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Nakagawa T, Kang D-H, Fieg D, et al. Unearthing uric acid: an ancient factor with recently found significance in renal and cardiovascular disease. Kidney Int. 2006;69:1722–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nasr SH, Sethi S, Cornell LD, et al. Crystalline nephropathy due to 2,8 dihydroxyadeninuria: an under-recognized cause of irreversible renal failure. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2010;25:1909–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Parasuraman R, Venkat KK. Crystal-induced kidney disease in 2 kidney transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55:192–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Perazella MA. Crystal-induced acute renal failure. Am J Med. 1999;106:459–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Perazella MA, Markowitz GS. Bisphosphonate nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int. 2008;74:1385–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Prien Sr EL. The riddle of Randall’s plaques. J Urol. 1975;114:500–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Randall A. Papillary pathology as a precursor of primary renal calculus. J Urol. 1940;44:580–9.Google Scholar
  30. Rokus AK, Waikar SS, Alexander MP, et al. Acute phosphate nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int. 2008;75:987–91.Google Scholar
  31. Said SM, Nasr SH, Samsa R, et al. Nephrotoxicity of antiviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Kidney Int. 2007;71:1071–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Salzer WR, Keren D. Oxalosis as a complication of chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 1973;4:61–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schell-Feith EA, Kist-van Holthe JE. Nephrocalcinosis in preterm neonates. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:221–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Servais A, Moriniere V, Grunfeld J-P, et al. Late-onset nephropathic cystinosis: clinical presentation, outcome, and genotyping. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008;3:27–35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Steele TH. Hyperuricemic nephropathies. Nephron. 1999;81 suppl 1suppl 1:45–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Stokes MB, Jernigan S, D’Agati VD. Infantile nephropathic cystinosis. Kidney Int. 2007;73:782–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Talbot JH, Terplan KL. The kidney in gout. Medicine. 1960;39:405–63.Google Scholar
  38. Taranta A, Wilmer MJ, van den Heuval LP, et al. Analysis of CNTS gene transcripts in nephropathic cystinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2010;25:1263–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Wilmer MJ, Schoeber JP, van den Heuval LP, Levetchenko EN. Cystinosis: practical tools for diagnosis and treatment. Pediatr Nephrol. 2011;26:205–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen M. Bonsib
    • 1
  1. 1.NephropathLittle RockUSA

Personalised recommendations