Molecular Mechanism of Sleep–Wake Regulation: From Basic to Translational Research
Sleep gives our body its needed rest, which prepares us for the next day’s activities. In our modern society, people suffer from sleep deprivation, which leads to an inability to concentrate, to a loss of judgment, and to an increased risk of accidents. It is reported that 1 in 4–5 Japanese has a sleep problem and that 1 in 9 Japanese uses sleeping pills regularly. Hypnotic drugs are prescribed for insomnia patients. The current sleeping pills developed from tranquilizers are much safer than the ones used in the past, as the latter were developed from anesthetic agents, which brought death in case too many pills were taken. However, the current type of sleeping pills causes a coma in case of an overdose. Such pills are sometimes used in crimes such as coma robbery cases.
KeywordsNREM Sleep Extracellular Adenosine Physiological Sleep Increase NREM Sleep Somnogenic Effect
We thank Drs. Michael Lazarus and Zhi-Li Huang for helpful comments on this manuscript. This work was supported by grants from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Takeda Science Foundation, Sankyo Foundation, the Program of Basic and Applied Researches for Innovations in Bio-oriented Industry of Japan, Takeda Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, and Osaka City.
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