Genes, Memes, Culture, and Psychosomatic Medicine: An Integrative Model

  • Hoyle LeighEmail author


The brain evolved as a specialized organ dedicated to processing information. Information is stored as memory, which may be a result of learning, or may be intrinsic, derived from genes. The evolution of the brain facilitated learning, survival, reproduction, and further enlargement of the brain. Learning through trial and error created information that facilitated individual and species survival, but the information contained in the memories died with the organism until the brain developed imitation as a learning tool [1].


Irritable Bowel Syndrome Deep Brain Stimulation Irritable Bowel Syndrome Patient Short Allele Darwinian Natural Selection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of CaliforniaSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.UCSF FresnoFresnoUSA

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