Advertisement

Pain, Depression, and Anxiety: A Common Language of Human Suffering

  • Tatjana SivikEmail author
  • Matteo Bruscoli
Chapter

Abstract

The framework of this chapter is psychosomatological. This represents an attempt to integrate different theoretical approaches, including psychodynamic theories of human development, complex systems theory, psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunology (PNEI), and biosemiotics, in studying the pain-depression-anxiety complex [1].

Keywords

Chronic Pain Psychosomatic Medicine Allostatic Load Anxiety Disorder Symptom Increase Pain Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Sivik, T., & Schoenfeld, R. (2006). Psychosomatology as a theoretical paradigm of modern psychosomatic medicine. International Congress Series, 1287, 23–28. Elsevier.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hoffmeyer, J. (1996). Signs of meaning in the universe. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sivik, T. (2000). Den lyckliga kroppen (the happy body). Forskning och Framsteg, 35, 9–24.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berridge, K. C. (2003). Pleasures of the brain. Brain and Cognition, 52, 106–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barbano, M., & Cador, M. (2007). Opioids for hedonic experience and dopamine to get ready for it. Psychopharmacology, 191, 497–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leknes, A., & Tracey, I. (2008). A common neurobiology for pain and pleasure. Neuroscience, 316, 314–318.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goldstein, D. S., & McEwen, B. (2002). Allostasis, homeostats, and the nature of stress. The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 5, 55–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chapman, C. R., Tuckett, R. P., & Song, C. W. (2008). Pain and stress in a systems perspective: Reciprocal neural, endocrine, and immune interactions. The Journal of Pain, 92, 122–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Panksepp, J., & Solms, M. (2012). The “Id” knows more than the “Ego” admits: Neuropsychoanalytic and primal consciousness perspectives on the inference between affective and cognitive neuroscience. Brain Sciences, 2, 147–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Panksepp, J. (1992). A critical role for “affective neuroscience” in resolving what is basic about basic emotions. Psychological Review, 99, 554–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience: The foundations of human and animal emotions. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Damasio, A. R. (1999). The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Van den Stock, J., Tamietto, M., Sorger, B., et al. (2011). Cortico-subcortical visual, somatosensory, and motor activations for perceiving dynamic whole-body emotional expressions with and without striate cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Washington, DC: PNAS.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ploghaus, A., Becerra, L., Borras, C., et al. (2003). Neural circuitry underlying pain modulation: Expectation, hypnosis, placebo. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7, 197–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Crombez, G., Vlaeyen, J. W., Heuts, P. H., et al. (1999). Pain-related fear is more disabling than pain itself: Evidence on the role of pain-related fear in chronic pain disability. Pain, 80, 329–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barlow, D. H., Chorpita, B. F., & Turovski, J. (1996). Fear, panic, anxiety and disorders of emotion. In D. A. Hope, et al. (Eds.), Nebrasca Symposium on Motivation (pp. 251328). Lincoln: University of Nebrasca Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Blanchard, R. J., Yudko, E. B., Rodgers, R. J., et al. (1993). Defense system psychopharmachology: An ethological approach to the pharmacology of fear and anxiety. Behavioural Brain Research, 58, 155–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rhudy, J. L., & Meagher, M. W. (2000). Fear and anxiety: Divergent effects on human pain thresholds. Pain, 84, 65–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ploghaus, A., Narain, C., Beckmann, C. F., et al. (2001). Exacerbation of pain by anxiety is associated with activity in a hippocampal network. Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 9896–9903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ploghaus, A., Tracey, I., Gati, S., et al. (1999). Dissociating pain from its anticipation in the human brain. Science, 284, 1979–1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chua, P., Krams, M., Toni, I., et al. (1999). A functional anatomy of anticipatory anxiety. NeuroImage, 9, 563–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Miller, S. M. (1981). Predictability and human stress: Toward a clarification of evidence and theory. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (pp. 203–256). Amsterdam: Academic Press Elsevier.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Simpson, J. R., Jr., Drevets, W. C., Snyder, A. Z., et al. (2001). Emotion-induced changes in human medial prefrontal cortex: II. During anticipatory anxiety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 688–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maier, W., & Falkai, P. (1999). The epidemiology of co-morbidity between depression, anxiety and somatic diseases. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14(suppl. 2), 51–56.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sivik, T (1992). Diagnoses and treatment of patients with idiopathic back pain. Doctoral Thesis (pp. 34–37). Department of Primary Health Care, University of Göteborg.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sivik, T., Röjwall, S., Gustafsson, E., et al. (1992). Relationship between back pain and personality. Psychological vulnerability as risk factors for development of chronic back pain. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 188–193.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sivik, T., & Delimar, D. (1994). Characteristics of patients who attribute chronic pain to minor injury. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 26, 27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lansinger, B., Nordholm, L., & Sivik, T. (1994). Characteristics of low back pain patients who do not complete physiotherapeutic treatment. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 8, 163–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hellzén-Ingemarsson, A., Nordholm, L., & Sivik, T. (1997). Risk for long-term disability among patients with back pain. Scandinavian Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 4, 205–212.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sivik, T. (1991). Personality traits in patients with acute low-back pain. A comparison with chronic low-back pain patients. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 56, 135–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Pincus, T., Santos, R., Breen, A., et al. (2002). A systematic review of psychological factors as predictors of chronicity/disability in prospective cohorts of LBP. Spine, 27, 109–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bair, M. J., Robinson, R. L., Katon, W., et al. (2003). Depression and pain comorbidity: A literature review. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163, 2433–2445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fink, P., Jensen, J., & Sorensen, L. (1999). Somatization in primary care: Prevalence, health care utilization and general practitioner recognition. Psychosomatics, 40, 330–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guggenheim, F. G. (2000). Somatoform disorder. In B. J. Sadock & V. A. Sadock (Eds.), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (7th ed., pp. 1504–1532). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    De Waal, M. W., Arnold, I. A., Eekhof, J. A., et al. (2004). Somatoform disorders in general practice: Prevalence, functional impairment and comorbidity with anxiety and depressive disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 184, 470–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    McWilliams, L. A., Goodwin, R. D., Cox, B. J., et al. (2004). Depression and anxiety associated with three pain conditions: Results from a nationally representative sample. Pain, 111, 77–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jitender, S., Cox, B. J., Clara, I., et al. (2005). The relationship between anxiety disorder and physical disorders in the U.S. national comorbidity survey. Depression and Anxiety, 21, 193–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bair, M. J., Wu, J., Damush, T. M., et al. (2008). Association of depression and anxiety alone and in combination with chronic musculoskeletal pain in primary care patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 890–897.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kato, K., Sullivan, P. F., Evengård, B., et al. (2006). Chronic widespread pain and its comorbidities. A population-based study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166, 1649–1654.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gatchel, R. J. (2004). Comorbidity of chronic pain and mental health disorders: The biopsychosocial perspective. American Psychologist, 59, 795–805.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tsang, A., von Korff, M., Lee, S., et al. (2008). Common chronic pain conditions in developed and developing countries: Gender and age differences and comorbidity with depression-anxiety disorders. The Journal of Pain, 9, 883–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nicolson, S. E., Caplan, J. P., Williams, D. E., et al. (2009). Comorbid pain, depression and anxiety: Multifactorial pathology allows for multifaceted treatment. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 17, 407–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gerrits, M. M., Vogelzangs, N., van Oppen, P., et al. (2012). Impact of pain on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Pain, 153, 429–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mostoufi, S. M., Ahumada, S. M., Reis, V., et al. (2012). Health and distress predictors of hearth rate variability in fibromyalgia and other forms of chronic pain. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 72, 39–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gore, M., Brandenburg, N. A., Dukes, E., et al. (2005). Pain severity in diabetic peripheral neuropathy is associated with patient functioning, symptom levels of anxiety and depression, and sleep. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 30, 374–385.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sivik, T. (1999). Psychosomatic research in relation to theory of science. Journal of Advances in Body and Mind Medicine, 15, 148–153.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sivik, T. (1998). Since we have both body and mind we are all psychosomatic. Journal of Advances in Body and Mind Medicine., 14, 223–233.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ploghaus, A., Becerra, L., Borras, C., et al. (2003). Neural circuitry underlying pain modulation: Expectation, hypnosis, placebo. Trends in Cognitive Science, 7, 197–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sivik, T. (1998). More on somatization. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 14, 223–230.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sivik, T. (1992). Tendency to somatize, personality traits and low back pain – Psychological vulnerability as risk factor for the development of chronic back pain. In E. Ernst, M. Jayson, & M. Pope, et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of advances in idiopathic low back pain (pp. 191–195). Vienna: Blackwell-MZV.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    von Uexkull, J. (1982). The theory of meaning. Semiotica, 42, 25–82.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Peirce, C. S. (1977). Semiotic elements and classes of signs. In C. H. Hardwick (Ed.), Semiotics and significs. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Collier, J. D. (1998). Information increase in biological systems: How does adaptation fit? In G. van de Vijver et al. (Eds.), Evolutionary systems: Biologocal and epistemological perspectives on selection and self-organization. Dodrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Salthe, S. N. (2007). Semiotics in biology: Inside neodarwinism. In M. Barbieri (Ed.), Biosemiotic research trends (pp. 255–268). Hauppauge, NY: Nova.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hoffmeyer, J. (2008). Biosemiotics. An examination into signs of life and the life of signs. Scranton, PA: University of Scranton Press.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Long, T. L. (2011). Pain as sign and symptom. New York: Biomedical Research.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cilliers, P. (1998). Complexity and postmodernism: Understanding complex systems. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Notcutt, W. (1998). The Tao of pain. Pain reviews, 5, 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Cahana, A. (2007). Pain and philosophy of mind. Pain, Clinical Updates, 25, 1–4.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Sivik, T. (2000). The difference between taking an anamnesis and listening to a (life) story. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 16, 182–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Turk, D. C., & Melcack, R. (2011). Handbook of pain assessment. New York: Guilford Publications.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sivik, T., Gustavsson, E., & Klingberg-Olsson, K. (1992). Differential diagnosis of low-back pain patients; a simple quantification of the pain drawing. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 55–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sivik, T., & Hösterey, U. (1992). The thematic apperception test as an aid in understanding the psychodynamics of development of chronic idiopathic pain syndrome. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 57, 57–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sivik, T., Delimar, N., & Schoenfeld, R. (2007). Sivik psychosomaticism test and test of operational style – construct validity: Relationship with Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-R). Psychological Topics, 1, 251–258.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sivik, T., Delimar, N., & Schoenfeld, R. (1999). Construct validity of the sivik psychosomaticism test and test of operational style: Correlations with four Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) subscales. Integrative Physiological and Behavioural Science, 34, 79–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sivik, T., Delimar, N., & Schoenfeld, R. (1999). Construct validity of the sivik psychosomaticism test and test of operational style: Correlations with karolinska scheme of personality. Integrative Physiological and Behavioural Science, 34, 71–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sivik, T., Delimar, N., & Schoenfeld, R. (1999). Sivik psychosomaticism test and test of operational style: Relationship with state-trait anxiety inventory and Beck’s depression inventory. Revista Portugisa de Psicossomatica, 2, 71–81.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sivik, T., Delimar, N., & Schoenfeld, R. (2002). Sivik psychosomaticism test and test of operational style: Relationship with a Swedish Mood Adjective Check List -MACL. Revista Portugisa de Psicossomatica, 4, 31–38.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dunbar, H. F. (1935). Emotions and bodily changes: A survey of literature on psychosomatic relationships (pp. 1910–1933). New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lane, R. (2008). Neural substrates of implicit and explicit emotional processes: A unifying framework for psychosomatic medicine. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Sivik, T. (2000). Psychosomatic medicine: Why fix it if it ain’t broken? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 69, 178–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sivik, T. (1999). Integrative medicine, loving openness, and the need for wisdom. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 15, 29–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Shevrin, H. (2012, June). Freud’s theory of unconscious conflict linked to anxiety symptoms ScienceDaily. Presented at 101st Annual Meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Chicago.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of General Medicine, Institute of Psychosomatic MedicineUniversity of GöteborgGöteborgSweden
  2. 2.Societa Italina Medicina Psichosomatica, Italy, Affiliated to Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine, SwedenFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations