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Vitamin D Fortification in North America: Current Status and Future Considerations

Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Until the last decade, adequacy of vitamin D status was not a public health concern, because vitamin D synthesis from sun exposure was thought to meet most of the North American populations’ needs and the ubiquitous fortification of milk was thought to provide sufficient intake when sun exposure was limited. More recently, a growing incidence of rickets in infants and evidence from national surveys showing high prevalence of poor vitamin D status in children and adults is slowly eroding our confidence in the vitamin D adequacy of many Americans and Canadians, as well as in other developed countries [1–3]. Concern about the high prevalence of poor vitamin D status stems from the significant association of low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D {25(OH)D} levels with the increased risk of both chronic and infectious disease, but most strongly with the chronic bone diseases, osteoporosis, and rickets in children [1–4].

Keywords

Vitamin D fortification Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) Future considerations North America 

Abbreviations

1,25(OH)2D

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D

25(OH)D

25-Hydroxyvitamin D

AI

Adequate intake

CHMS

Canadian health measures survey

DRI

Dietary Recommended Intake

EAR

Estimated average requirement

IOM

Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Education Survey

RDA

Recommended Daily Allowance

UL

Upper level of safe intake

USDA

US Department of Agriculture

Vitamin D2

Ergocalciferol

Vitamin D3

Cholecalciferol

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Health and Human Services, Center for Food Safety and Applied NutritionU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationLaurelUSA
  2. 2.College of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of SaskatchewanSaskatoonCanada

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