Advertisement

Mutagenesis—A Potential Approach for Crop Improvement

  • Rajib Roychowdhury
  • Jagatpati Tah
Chapter

Abstract

Global environmental dissociative changes are now in steady state. Its negative impacts were gradually imposed on a wide range of crops and thus crop improvement was hindered as well. Given this challenge, existing and new, appropriate technologies need to be integrated for global crop improvement. Among the different present approaches, mutagenesis and mutation breeding and the isolation of improved or novel phenotypes in conjunction with conventional breeding programmes can result in mutant varieties endowed with new and desirable variation of agrometrical traits. Induced mutations and its related technologies play very well in this ground and this overall strategy helps to trace the crop genetic diversity along with its biodiversity maintenance. Such induced mutagenesis, a crucial step in crop improvement programme, is now successful in application due to the advancement and incorporation of large-scale selection techniques, micropropagation and other in vitro culture methods, molecular biology tools and techniques in modern crop breeding performance. Time to time, different mutation techniques and their application processes are changing significantly; in this perspective, insertional mutagenesis and retrotransposons are taking more supports for mutational tagging and new mutation generation. For details investigation on plant structure and function, mutagenic agents and their precise role are much essential as it can produce mutants with some phenotypic changes. Functional genomics studies make the ultimatum platform on this field of study where few crop plants were used for mutational experimentation on some prime agronomic traits till now. This is a prerequisite step and is applying on diverse crop for further improvement. High throughput DNA technologies for mutation screening such as TILLING (Targeting Induced Limited Lesions IN Genomes), high-resolution melt analysis (HRM) , ECOTILLING etc. are the key techniques and resources in molecular mutation breeding. Molecular mutation breeding will significantly increase both the efficiency and efficacy of mutation techniques in crop breeding. Such modern and classical technologies are using for the development of mutation induction with the objective of using a set of globally important crops to validate identified relevant novel techniques and build these into modular pipelines to serve as technology packages for induced crop mutations. Thus, mutation assisted plant breeding will play a crucial role in the generation of ‘designer crop varieties’ to address the uncertainties of global climate variability and change, and the challenges of global plant-product insecurity.

Keywords

Linear Energy Transfer Mutant Variety Chemical Mutagen Ethyl Methane Sulfonate Maleic Hydrazide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adamu AK, Aliyu H (2007) Morphological effects of sodium azide on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Sci World J 2(4):9–12Google Scholar
  2. Ahloowalia BS, Maluszynski M, Nichterlein K (2004) Global impact of mutation derived varieties. Euphytica 135:187–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albokari MMA, Alzahrani SM, Alsalman AS (2012) Radiosensitivity of some local cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to gamma irradiation. Bangladesh J Bot 41(1):1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ali Z, Xu ZL, Zhang DY, He XL, Bahadur S, Yi JX (2011) Molecular diversity analysis of eggplant (Solanum melongena) genetic resources. Genet Mol Res 10(2):1141–1155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson PA, Okubara PA, Arroyo-Garcia R, Meyers BC, Michelmore RW (1996) Molecular analysis of irradiation-induced and spontaneous deletion mutants at a disease resistance locus in Lactuca sativa. Mol General Genet 251:316–325Google Scholar
  6. Ariyo OJ (1987) Variation and heritability of fifteen characters in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.). Tropic Agric 45:67–71Google Scholar
  7. Ashri A (1970) A dominant mutation with variable penetrance and expressivity induced by diethyl sulfate in peanuts (Arachis hypogaea Linn.). Mutation Res 9:473–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Auerbach C, Robson JM (1946) Chemical production of mutations. Nature 157:302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bansal HC, Chopra VL, Swaminathan MS (1962) Effect of ultraviolet pre- and post-treatment on yield of mutations by X-rays in wheat. Indian J Genet 22:162–166Google Scholar
  10. Barker SJ, Tagu D, Delp G (1998) Regulation of root and fungal morphogenesis in mycorrhizal symbioses. Plant Physiol 116:1201–1207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baulcombe D (2002) RNA silencing. Curr Biol 12:R82–R84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Blakely EA (1992) Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles. Radiat Environ Biophys 31:181–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borlaug NE (1997) Feeding a world of 10 billion people: the miracle ahead. Plant Tiss Cul Biotech 3(3):119–127Google Scholar
  14. Brown SDM, Peters J (1996) Combining mutagenesis and genomics in the mouse—closing the phenotype gap. Trends Genet 12(11):433–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Buschges R, Hollrichter K, Panstruga R, Simons G, Wolter M, Frijters A, van Daelen R, von der Lee T, Diergaarde P, Groenendijk J, Topsch S, Vos P, Salamini F, Schulze-Lefert P (1997) The barley Mlo gene: a novel control element of plant pathogen resistance. Cell 88:695–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Capecchi MR (2000) How close are we to implementing gene targeting in animals other than the mouse? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:956–957PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chopra VL (2005) Mutagenesis: investigating the process and processing the outcome for crop improvement. Curr Sci 89(2):353–359Google Scholar
  18. Chopra VL, Swaminathan MS (1966) Mutagenic efficiency of individual and combined treatments of ethyl-methane sulfonate and hydroxyl amine in emmer wheat. Indian J Genet 26:59–62Google Scholar
  19. Chopra VL, Kapoor ML, Swaminathan MS (1965) Effects of pre- and post-treatments with S-2-aminoethyllisothiouronium bromide hydrobromide on the frequency of chromosome aberrations and chlorophyll mutations induced by X-rays in barley. Indian J Exp Biol 3:123–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chuang CF, Meyerowitz EM (2000) Specific and heritable genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4985–4990PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Colbert T, Till BJ, Tampa R et al (2001) High-throughput screening for induced point mutations. Plant Physiol 126:480–484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Comai L, Young K, Reynolds SH, Codomo C, Enns L, Johnson J, Burtner C, Henikoff JG, Grene EA, Till BJ, Henikoff S (2004) Efficient discovery of nucleotide polymorphisms in populations by ECOTILLING. Plant J 37:778–786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dangl JL, Dietrich RA, Richberg MH (1996) Death don’t have no mercy: cell death programs in plant-microbe interaction. Plant Cell 8:1793–1807PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. DeFrancesco L, Perkel JM (2001) In search of genomic variation. Scientist 15:24–26Google Scholar
  25. DeVries H (1905) Species and varieties: their origin by mutation. The Open Court Publishing Company, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  26. Din R, Qasim M, Ahmad K (2004) Radio sensitivity of various wheat genotypes in M1 generation. Int J Agric Biol 6:898–900Google Scholar
  27. Domingo C, Andres F, Talon M (2007) Rice cv. Bahia mutagenized population: a new resource for rice breeding in the Mediterranean basin. Span J Agric Res 5:341–347Google Scholar
  28. Drake JW, Charlesworth B, Charlesworth D, Crow JF (1998) Rates of spontaneous mutation. Genetics 148:1667–1686PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dreisigacker S, Zhang P, Warburton ML, Van Ginkel M (2004) SSR and pedigree analyses of genetic diversity among CIMMYT wheat lines targeted to different mega environments. Crop Sci 44:381–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dribnenki JCP, Green AG, Atlin GN (1996) Linola TM 989 low linolenic flax. Can J Plant Sci 76:329–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Eliot F, Cordeiro G, Bundock PC, Henry RJ (2008) SNP discovery by ECOTILLING using capillary electrophoresis. Plant Genotyping 2: SNP Technol 5:78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fasoula VA, Fasoula DA (2002) Principles underlying genetic improvement for high and stable crop yield potential. Field Crops Res 75:191–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Feix G, Hochholdinger F, Wulff D (1997) Genetic analysis of root formation in maize. In: Developmental pathways in plants: biotechnological implications. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, p 10Google Scholar
  34. Finnegan EJ, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (1996) Reduced DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana results in abnormal plant development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:8449–8454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gahoonia TS, Nielsen NE (1997) Variation in root hairs of barley cultivars doubled soil phosphorous uptake. Euphytica 98:177–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gilchrist EJ, Haughn GW (2005) TILLING without a plough: a new method with applications for reverse genetics. Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:211–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gnanamurthy S, Dhanavel D, Chidambaram ALA (2012) Frequency in germination studies of chlorophyll mutants in effectiveness and efficiency using chemical mutagens. Int J Curr Life Sci 2(3):23–27Google Scholar
  38. Gowda MVC, Nadaf HL, Sheshagiri R (1996) The role of mutation in intraspecific differentiation of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Euphytica 90:105–113Google Scholar
  39. Hase Y, Akita Y, Kitamura S, Narumi I, Tanaka A (2012) Development of an efficient mutagenesis technique using ion beams: Toward more controlled mutation breeding. Plant Biotechnol 29:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Howard JT, Ward J, Watson JN, Roux KH (1999) Heteroduplex cleavage analysis using S1 nuclease. Biotech 27:18–19Google Scholar
  41. Islam SMS (2010) The effect of colchicine pretreatment on isolated microspore culture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Aus J Crop Sci 4(9):660–665Google Scholar
  42. Ismail MA, Heakal MY, Fayed A (1977) Improvement of yield through induced mutagenesis in broad beans. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 36(3):347–350Google Scholar
  43. Johnson HW, Robinson HF, Comstock RE (1955) Estimation of genetic and environmental variability in soybean. Agron J 47:314–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Kang SY, Kim JB, Lee GJ, Kim DS (2010) Gamma phytotron: a new chronic gamma irradiation facility. Plant Mut Rep 2(2):50–51Google Scholar
  45. Kazama Y, Saito H, Yamamoto YY, Hayashi Y, Ichida H, Ryuto H, Fukunishi N, Abe T (2008) LET-dependent effects of heavy-ion beam irradiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biotechnol 25:113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Khan S, Goyal S (2009) Improvement of mungbean varieties through induced mutations. Afr J Plant Sci 3:174–180Google Scholar
  47. Khan S, Wani MR, Parveen K (2006) Sodium azide induced high yielding early mutant in lentil. Agric Sci Digest 26(1):65–66Google Scholar
  48. Khan S, Al-Qurainy F, Anwar F (2009) Sodium azide: a chemical mutagen for enhancement of agronomic traits of crop plants. Environ Int J Sci Tech 4:1–21Google Scholar
  49. Kharkwal MC, Shu QY (2009) The role of induced mutations in world food security. Shu QY (eds) In: Induced plant mutations in the genomics era. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 33–38Google Scholar
  50. Kidwell MG (2005) Transposable elements. In: Gregory TR (eds) The evolution of the genome. Elsevier, San Diego, pp 165–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knapp SJ, Tagliani LA (1991) Two medium chain fatty acid mutants of Cuphea viscosissima. Plant Breed 106:338–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Koornneef M, Dellaert LW, Van Der Veen JH (1982) EMS- and radiation-induced mutation frequencies at individual loci in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Mutat Res 93:109–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kott L (1995) Production of mutants using the rapeseed doubled haploid system. In: Induced mutations and molecular techniques for crop improvement. IAEA, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  54. Kovacs E, Keresztes A (2002) Effect of gamma and UV-BIC radiation on plant cells. Micron 33:199–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kozgar MI, Goyal S, Khan S (2011) EMS induced mutational variability in Vigna radiata and Vigna mungo. Res J Bot 6:31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kozgar MI, Khan S, Wani MR (2012) Variability and correlations studies for total iron and manganese contents of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) high yielding mutants. American J Food Tech 7:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kumamaru T, Sato H, Satoh H (1997) High-lysine mutants of rice, Oryza sativa L. Plant Breed 116:245–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Leij FR, Visser RGF, Oosterhaven K, Kop DAM, Jacobsen E, Feenstra WJ (1991) Complementation of the amylose-free starch mutant of potato (Solanum tuberosum) by the gene encoding granule-bound starch synthase. Theor Appl Genet 82:289–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lett JT (1992) Damage to cellular DNA from particulate radiations, the efficacy of its processing and the radiosensitivity of mammalian cells. Emphasis on DNA double strand breaks and chromatin breaks. Radiat Environ Biophys 31:257–277PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mahajani S, Chopra VL (1973) Interaction of formaldehyde and X-rays on mutation production in Drosophila melanogaster. Curr Sci 42:473–474Google Scholar
  61. Maluszynski M (1999) Crop germplasm enhancement through mutation techniques. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Rice Germplasm Evaluation and Enhancement Arkansas, Stuttgart, pp 74–83Google Scholar
  62. Maluszynski M, Nichterlein K, van Zanten L, Ahloowalia BS (2000) Officially released mutant varieties—the FAO/IAEA Database. Mut Breed Rev 12:1–12Google Scholar
  63. Matzke M, Matzke AJM, Kooter JM (2001) RNA: guiding gene silencing. Science 293:1080–1083PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McCallum CM, Comai L, Greene EA, Henikoff S (2000a) Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes (TILLING) for plant functional genomics. Plant Physiol 123:439–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McCallum CM, Comai L, Grene EA, Henikoff S (2000b) Targeted screening for induced mutations. Nat Biotechnol 18:455–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mensah JK, Akomeah PA (1992) Mutagenic effects of hydroxylamine and streptomycin on the growth and seed yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp). Legume Res 15(1):39–44Google Scholar
  67. Mensah JK, Obadoni O (2007) Effects of sodium azide on yield parameters of groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.). Afr J Biotechnol 6:20–25Google Scholar
  68. Micke A (1988) Genetic improvement of grain legumes using induced mutations: an overview. In: Improvement of grain legume production using induced mutations. IAEA, Vienna, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  69. Micke A, Donini B, Maluszynski M (1990) Induced mutations for crop improvement. Mut Breed Rev 7:41Google Scholar
  70. Mostafa GG (2011) Effect of sodium azide on the growth and variability induction in Helianthus annuus L. Int J Plant Breed Genet 5:76–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Muller HJ (1927) Artificial transmutation of the gene. Science 66:84–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Muller J, Dulieu H (1998) Enhanced growth of non-photosynthesizing tobacco mutants in the presence of a mycorrhizal inoculum. J Exp Bot 49(321):707–711Google Scholar
  73. Nakayama M, Tanikawa N, Morita Y, Ban Y (2012) Comprehensive analyses of anthocyanin and related compounds to understand flower color change in ion-beam mutants of cyclamen (Cyclamen spp.) and carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Plant Biotechnol 29:215–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Ng PC, Henikoff S (2003) SIFT: predicting amino acid changes that affect protein function. Nucleic Acids Res 31:3812–3814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Novak FJ, Brunner H (1992) Plant breeding: induced mutation technology for crop improvement. IAEA Bull 4:25–32Google Scholar
  76. Okamura M, Umemoto N, Onishi N (2012) Breeding glittering carnations by an efficient mutagenesis system. Plant Biotechnol 29:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Panse VG (1957) Genetics of quantitative characters in relation to plant breeding. Indian J Genet Plant Breed 17:318–328Google Scholar
  78. Parry MAJ, Madgwick PJ, Bayon C, Tearall K, Hernandez-Lopez A, Baudo M, Rakszegi M, Hamada W, Al-Yassin A, Ouabbou H, Labhilili M, Phillips AL (2009) Mutation discovery for crop improvement. J Exp Bot 60(10):2817–2825PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Patil SH (1966) Mutations induced in groundnut by X-rays. Indian J Genet 26A:334–348Google Scholar
  80. Perry JA, Wang TL, Welham TJ, Gardner S, Pike JM, Yoshida S, Parniske M (2003) A TILLING reverse genetics tool and a web accessible collection of mutants of the legume Lotus japonicus. Plant Physiol 131:866–871PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Que Q, Jorgensen RA (1998) Homology-based control of gene expression patterns in transgenic petunia flowers. Dev Genet 22:100–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ranel C (1989) The nature of spontaneous mutations. Mutation Res 212:3342Google Scholar
  83. Rice MC, May GD, Kipp PD, Parekh H, Kmiec EB (2000) Genetic repair of mutations in plant cell-free extracts directed by specific chimeric oligonucleotides. Plant Physiol 123:427–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ririe KM, Rasmussen RP, Wittwer CT (1997) Product differentiation by analysis of DNA melting curves during the polymerase chain reaction. Anal Biochem 245:154–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rong YS, Golic KG (2000) Gene targeting by homologous recombination in Drosophila. Science 288:2013–2018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Roychowdhury R (2011) Effect of chemical mutagens on carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.): a mutation breeding approach. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany, pp 1–276Google Scholar
  87. Roychowdhury R, Tah J (2011) Mutation breeding in Dianthus caryophyllus L. for economic traits. Electronic J Plant Breed 2(2):282–286Google Scholar
  88. Roychowdhury R, Tah J (2011a) Assessment of chemical mutagenic effects in mutation breeding programme for M1 generation of Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Res Plant Biol 1(4):23–32Google Scholar
  89. Roychowdhury R, Tah J (2011b) Genetic variability study for yield and associated quantitative characters in mutant genotypes of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Int J Biosci 1(5):38–44Google Scholar
  90. Roychowdhury R, Tah J (2011c) Chemical mutagenic action on seed germination and related agro-metrical traits in M1 Dianthus generation. Curr Bot 2(8):19–23Google Scholar
  91. Roychowdhury R, Bandyopadhyay A, Dalal T, Tah J (2011) Biometrical analysis for some agro-economic characters in M1 generation of Dianthus caryophyllus. Plant Archives 11(2):989–994Google Scholar
  92. Roychowdhury R, Tah J, Dalal T, Bandyopadhyay A (2011a) Selection response and correlation studies for metrical traits in mutant carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) genotypes. Cont J Agric Sci 5(3):6–14Google Scholar
  93. Roychowdhury R, Sultana P, Tah J (2011b) Morphological architecture of foliar stomata in M2 carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) genotypes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electronic J Plant Breed 2(4):583–588Google Scholar
  94. Roychowdhury R, Roy S, Tah J (2011c) Estimation of heritable components of variation and character selection in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) for mutation breeding programme. Cont J Biol Sci 4(2):31–36Google Scholar
  95. Roychowdhury R, Datta S, Gupta P, Tah J (2012) Analysis of genetic parameters on mutant populations of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) after ethyl methane sulphonate treatment. Not Sci Biol 4(1):137–143Google Scholar
  96. Roychowdhury R, Alam MJF, Bishnu S, Dalal T, Tah J (2012a) Comparative study for chemical mutagenesis on seed germination, survivability and pollen sterility in M1 and M2 generations of Dianthus. Plant Breed Seed Sci 65(1):29–38Google Scholar
  97. Rutger JN (1992) Impact of mutation breeding in rice—a review. Mut Breed Rev 8:1–24Google Scholar
  98. Schaefer DG (2001) Gene targeting in Physcomitrella patens. Curr Opin Plant Biol 4:143–150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Schnebly SR, Fehr WR, Welke GA, Hammond EG, Duvick DN (1995) Inheritance of reduced and elevated palmitate in mutant lines of soybean. Crop Sci 34:829–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Siddiqui BA, Khan S (1999) Breeding in crop plants: mutations and in vitro mutation breeding. Kalyani, India, p 402Google Scholar
  101. Simek R, Novoselovi D (2012) The use of reverse genetics approach in plant genomics. Poljoprivreda 18(1):14–18Google Scholar
  102. Simsek O, Kacar YA (2010) Discovery of mutations with TILLING and ECOTILLING in plant genomes. Sci Res Essays 5(24): 3799–3802Google Scholar
  103. Singh J, Singh S (2001a) Induced mutations in basmati rice (Oryza sativa L.). Diamond Jub Symp, New Delhi, p 212Google Scholar
  104. Singh M, Singh VP (2001b) Genetic analysis of certain mutant lines of Urdbean for yield and quality traits in M4 generation. Indian J Pulses Res 14(1):60–62Google Scholar
  105. Singh S, Richharia AK, Joshi AK (1998) An assessment of gamma ray induced mutations in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Indian J Genet Plant Breed 58(4):455–463Google Scholar
  106. Slade AJ, Knauf VC (2005) TILLING moves beyond functional genomics into crop improvement. Transgenic Res 14:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Speulman E, Metz PL, van Arkel G, te Lintel Hekkert B, Stiekema WJ, Pereira A (1999) A two-component enhancer-inhibitor transposon mutagenesis system for functional analysis of the Arabidopsis genome. Plant Cell 11:1853–1866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Srivastava A, Singh VP (1996) Induced high yielding Pigeon pea mutants. Mut Breed Newsletter 42:8–9Google Scholar
  109. Stadler LJ (1928) Mutation in barley induced by X-rays and radium. Science 67:186–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stracke S, Kistner C, Yoshida S, Mulder L, Sato S, Kaneko T, Tabata S, Sandal N, Stougaard J, Szczyglowski K, Parniske M (2002) A receptor-like kinase required for both bacterial and fungal symbiosis. Nature 417:959–962PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Struhl K, Stinchcomb DT, Scherer S, Davis RW (1979) High-frequency transformation of yeast: autonomous replication of hybrid DNA molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76:1035–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Swaminathan MS, Natarajan AT (1959) Effect of ultraviolet pretreatment on yield of mutations by X-rays in wheat. Science 130:1407–1409PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Szarejko I, Maluszynski M (1980) Analysis of usefulness of sodium azide in plant breeding. Acta Biol 9:60–66Google Scholar
  114. Tah PR (2006) Induced macromutation in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. Int J Bot 2:219–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Taylor NE, Greene EA (2003) PARSESNP: a tool for the analysis of nucleotide polymorphisms. Nucleic Acids Res 31:3808–3811PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Till BJ, Burtner C, Comai L, Henikoff S (2004) Mismatch cleavage by single-strand specific nucleases. Nucleic Acids Res 32:2632–2641PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Till BJ, Zerr T, Bowers E, Grene EA, Comai L, Henikoff S (2006) High throughput discovery of rare human nucleotide polymorphisms by ECOTILLING. Nucleic Acids Res 34:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Till BJ, Comai L, Henikoff S (2007a) TILLING and ECOTILLING for crop improvement. In: Genomics-assisted crop improvement, vol 1. Genomics approaches and platforms. Springer, Germany, pp 333–349Google Scholar
  119. Till BJ, Cooper J, Tai TH, Colowit P, Greene EA, Henikoff S, Comai L (2007b) Discovery of chemically induced mutations in rice by TILLING. BMC Plant Biol 7:19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Van Houwelingen A, Souer E, Spelt K, Kloos D, Mol J, Koes R (1998) Analysis of flower pigmentation mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis in Petunia hybrida. Plant J 13:39–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Vasline YA, Vennila S, Ganesan J (2005) Mutation—an alternate source of variability. UGC national seminar on present scenario in plant science research. Department Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, pp 42Google Scholar
  122. Vizir IY, Anderson ML, Wilson ZA, Mulligan BJ (1994) Isolation of deficiencies in the Arabidopsis genome by gamma irradiation of pollen. Genetics 137:1111–1119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Vollmann J, Damboeck A, Baumgartner S, Ruckenbauer P (1997) Selection of induced mutants with improved linolenic acid content in camelina. Fett/Lipid 99(10):357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wang HX, Viret JF, Eldridge A, Perera R, Signer ER et al (2001) Positive-negative selection for homologous recombination in Arabidopsis. Gene 272:249–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wani MR, Khan S (2006) Estimates of genetic variability in mutated populations and the scope of selection for yield attributes in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. Egypt J Biol 8:1–6Google Scholar
  126. Waterhouse PM, Graham MW, Wang MB (1998) Virus resistance and gene silencing in plants can be induced by simultaneous expression of sense and antisense RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:13959–13964PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Waugh R, Leader DJ, McCallum N, Caldwell D (2006) Harvesting the potential of induced biological diversity. Trends Plant Sci 11:71–79PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wessler SR (2006) Transposable elements and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:17600–17601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wilde HD, Chen Y, Jiang P, Bhattacharya A (2012) Targeted mutation breeding of horticultural plants. Emir J Food Agric 24(1):31–41Google Scholar
  130. Wong RSC, Swanson E (1991) Genetic modification of canola oil: high oleic acid canola. In: Haberstroh C, Morris CE (eds) Fat and cholesterol reduced food. Gull, Houston, pp 154–164Google Scholar
  131. Yang Y, Shah J, Klessig DF (1997) Signal perception and transduction in plant defense responses. Genes Dev 11:1621–1639PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Youil R, Kemper B, Cotton RG (1996) Detection of 81 of 81 known mouse beta-globin promoter mutations with T4 endonuclease VII—the EMC method. Genomics 32:431–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhou L, Vandersteen J, Wang L, Fuller T, Taylor M, Palais B, Wittwer CT (2004) High-resolution DNA melting curve analysis to establish HLA genotypic identity. Tissue Antigens 64:156–164PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Zhou LM, Wang L, Palais R, Pryor R, Wittwer CT (2005) High resolution DNA melting analysis for simultaneous mutation scanning and genotyping in solution. Clinical Chem 51:1770–1777CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyVisva-BharatiSantiniketanIndia
  2. 2.Botany Department (UGC-CAS)The University of BurdwanBurdwanIndia

Personalised recommendations