Percutaneous Stone Removal: Case Discussion on Stones in a Horseshoe Kidney

  • Muhammad Waqas IqbalEmail author
  • Michael E. Lipkin
  • Glenn M. Preminger


Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) occupies a central place in the management of kidney as well as large proximal ureteral stones. Advances in equipment and technology with utilization of balloon dilatation, newer digital rigid and flexible nephroscopes, intracorporeal lithotripters, and stone retrieval systems have revolutionized patient care. In this chapter we focus on the technique of percutaneous stone removal and the equipment required to perform PNL successfully including different devices for intracorporeal lithotripsy.


Outer Probe Holmium Laser Ultrasonic Probe Horseshoe Kidney Laser Lithotripsy 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Waqas Iqbal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael E. Lipkin
    • 1
  • Glenn M. Preminger
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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