Combined Remedies

  • Dean F. Williamson
Part of the SERDP ESTCP Environmental Remediation Technology book series (SERDP/ESTCP, volume 7)


Combined remedies refer to the deliberate combination of two or more physical, chemical or biological remediation technologies, designed to provide a more effective remedy than is possible when using any one technology alone. Recent advances in understanding the limitations of individual remediation technologies and the economic and performance benefits of combined technologies has resulted in the increased use of combined remedies to treat DNAPL source zones. Several technology combinations have been applied in an attempt to exploit synergies between different processes or to deploy different technologies at the most appropriate stages in the life cycle of a source zone. The rationale for combining remedial technologies is discussed in this chapter, as well as the challenges involved in combining technologies. Several examples of both sequential and coupled remedy combinations are described, along with strategies for selecting and designing effective combined remedies. The chapter also presents the post-treatment impacts of primary source zone technologies, factors to consider for applying concurrent technologies and a summary of the recent literature on the testing and use of selected technology combinations.


Source Zone Acid Volatile Sulfide Reductive Dechlorination Remediation Technology Sodium Dodecyl Sulfonate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dean F. Williamson
    • 1
  1. 1.CH2M HillGainesvilleUSA

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