History and Development of Pacing

  • David Korpas


The development of pacing technology has always been closely related to discoveries in the field of electricity and, later, electronic components and materials. The first written records of attempts to pace cardiac nerves or muscles in animals using electric current date back to the end of the eighteenth century [1]. In the nineteenth century, successful resuscitations of patients in cardiac arrest using electric current were documented [2]. In addition, the interest in acupuncture increased; in 1825 electric current was applied for the first time through thin-needle electrodes, derived from acupuncture needles. Thus, electroacupuncture was developed with the purpose of applying electric current to pace muscles, nerves, and organs.


Acupuncture Needle Pace Mode Atrial Lead Intrathoracic Impedance Implantable Pacemaker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Schecter DC (1971) Early experience with resuscitation by means of electricity. Surgery 69(3):360–372Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Althaus J (1864) Report of the committee appointed by the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society to inquire into the uses and the physiological, therapeutical and toxical effects of chloroform. Med Chir Trans 47:416Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baxi MV (2003) First artificial pacemaker: a milestone in history of cardiac electrostimulation. Asian Stud Med J. Accessed 18 Mar 2011
  4. 4.
    Vrana M et al (1984) Electronic devices for organs and tissue stimulation, 1st edn. SNTL, PragueGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zeman K (2009) Heart conduction system electrophysiology in time helix. Kardiol Rev 11(4):164–165Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blair HA (1936) On the quantity of electricity and the energy in electrical stimulation. J Gen Physiol 19(6):951–964, Jul 20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bauwens P (1941) Electro-diagnosis and electrotherapy in peripheral nerve lesions: (section of physical medicine). Proc R Soc Med 34(8):459–468PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyman AS (1969) Resuscitation of the stopped heart by intracardiac therapy. II. Experimental use of artificial pacemaker. Arch Intern Med 50:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Larsson B, Elmqvist H, Ryden L, Schuller H (2003) Lessons from the first patient with an implanted pacemaker: 1958–2001. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 6:114–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lipoldova J, Novak M (2006) History of permanent pacing. Kardiol Rev 8(4):166–173Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lüderitz B (2002) History of the disorders of cardiac rhythm, 3rd edn. Futura, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Special Committee on Aging US Senate (1982) Fraud, waste, and abuse in the medicare pacemaker industry. U.S. Government printing office, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    CCC del Uruguay: historical CCC’s pacemakers. Accessed 22 July 2012
  14. 14.
    The neurostimulation technology portal: history of pacemakers. Accessed 14 July 2012
  15. 15.
    Jeffrey K, Parsonnet V (1998) Cardiac pacing, 1960–1985: a quarter century of medical and industrial innovation. Circulation 97(19):1978–1991, May 19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Korpas
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Boston Scientific Czech RepublicPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department of Cybernetics and Biomedical EngineeringVSB - Technical University of OstravaOstrava-PorubaCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations