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Cardiovascular Cell Therapy

  • Annarosa Leri
  • Jan Kajstura
  • Marcello Rota
  • Piero Anversa
Chapter

Abstract

The concept of the heart as a terminally differentiated organ incapable of replacing damaged myocytes has been at the center of cardiovascular research and therapeutic development for the last 50 years. The progressive decline in myocyte number as a function of age and the formation of scarred tissue following myocardial infarction have been interpreted as irrefutable proofs of the postmitotic characteristic of the heart. Emerging evidence supports a more dynamic view of the heart, in which cell death and renewal are vital components of the remodeling process that governs cardiac homeostasis, aging, and disease. In a recent study, myocyte regeneration in the physiologically aging heart was found to occur at previously unexpected levels. From 20 to 100 years of age, the myocyte compartment is replaced completely 15 times in women and 11 times in men, and essentially none of the myocytes present at birth is preserved in the young adult, middle-aged, and senescent heart. The identification of dividing myocytes raises the important question concerning the origin of the newly formed cells. In vitro and in vivo findings strongly suggest that replicating myocytes correspond to transit-amplifying cells derived from the lineage determination of primitive cells, supporting the notion that cardiomyogenesis is controlled by activation and differentiation of stem cells. Investigators in several laboratories concur with the notion that the myocardium is an organ permissive for tissue regeneration mediated by exogenous and/or endogenous progenitors. In this chapter, we will focus on the cell classes that are currently employed in clinical studies for the treatment of cardiac diseases.

Keywords

Telomere Length Adult Heart Skeletal Myoblast Resident Stem Cell Senescent Heart 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Recommended Reading

  1. Abdel-Latif A, Bolli R, Tleyjeh IM, et al. Adult bone marrow-derived cells for cardiac repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167:989–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bolli R, Chugh AR, D’Amario D, et al. Cardiac stem cells in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (SCIPIO): initial results of a randomised phase 1 trial. Lancet. 2011;378:1847–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Kajstura J, Gurusamy N, Ogórek B, et al. Myocyte turnover in the aging human heart. Circ Res. 2010;107:1374–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Leri A, Kajstura J, Anversa P. Role of cardiac stem cells in cardiac pathophysiology: a paradigm shift in human myocardial biology. Circ Res. 2011;109:941–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Makkar RR, Smith RR, Cheng K, et al. Intracoronary cardiosphere-derived cells for heart regeneration after myocardial infarction (CADUCEUS): a prospective, randomised phase 1 trial. Lancet. 2012;379:895–904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annarosa Leri
    • 1
  • Jan Kajstura
    • 1
  • Marcello Rota
    • 1
  • Piero Anversa
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Departments of Anesthesia and MedicineBrigham and Women’s HospitalBostonUSA

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