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Human Growth Hormone

  • Le N. Dao
  • Barbara Lippe
  • Michael Laird
Chapter

Abstract

Human growth hormone (hGH) is a protein hormone essential for normal growth and development in humans. hGH affects many aspects of human metabolism, including lipolysis, the stimulation of protein synthesis, and the inhibition of glucose metabolism. Human growth hormone was first isolated and identified in the late 1950s from extracts of pituitary glands obtained from cadavers and from patients undergoing hypophysectomy. The first clinical use of these pituitary-extracted hGHs for stimulation of growth in hypopituitary children occurred in 1957 and 1958 (Raben 1958). From 1958 to 1985 the primary material used for clinical studies was pituitary-derived growth hormone (pit-hGH). Human growth hormone was first cloned in 1979 (Goeddel et al. 1979; Martial et al. 1979). The first use in humans of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was reported in the literature in 1982 (Hintz et al. 1982). The introduction of rhGH coincided with reports of a number of cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a fatal degenerative neurological disorder, in patients receiving pituitary-derived hGH. Concern over possible contamination of the pituitary-derived hGH preparations by the prion responsible for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease led to the removal of pit-hGH products from the market in the US in 1985 followed by the FDA approval of rhGH later in the year. The initial rhGH preparations were produced in bacteria (E. coli) but, unlike endogenous hGH, contained an N-terminal methionine group (met-rhGH). Natural sequence recombinant hGH products have subsequently been produced in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells.

Keywords

Growth Hormone Growth Hormone Deficiency Human Growth Hormone Turner Syndrome Growth Hormone Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Further Reading

  1. Boguszewski CL (2003) Molecular heterogeneity of human GH: from basic research to clinical implications. J Endocrinol Invest 26:274–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brooks AJ, Waters MJ (2010) The growth hormone receptor: mechanism of activation and clinical implications. Nat Rev Endocrinol 6(9):515–525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Fisker S (2006) Physiology and pathophysiology of growth hormone binding protein: methodological and clinical aspects. Growth Horm IGF Res 16:1–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Giustina A, Veldhuis JD (1998) Pathophysiology of the neuroregulation of growth hormone secretion in experimental animals and in the human. Endocr Rev 19(6):717–797PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Harvey S, Scanes CG, Daughaday WH (eds) (1995) Growth hormone. CRC Press, Inc, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  6. Harris M, Hofman PL, Cutfield WS (2004) Growth hormone treatment in children. Pediatr Drugs 6(2):93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Laursen T (2004) Clinical pharmacological aspects of growth hormone administration. Growth Horm IGF Res 14:16–44PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Simpson H, Savine R, Sonksen P et al (2002) Growth hormone replacement therapy for adults: into the new millennium. Growth Horm IGF Res 12:1–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinical PharmacologyGenentech Inc.South San FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Endocrine CareGenentech IncSouth San FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Department of Bioprocess DevelopmentDivision of Medical Affairs, Genentech IncSouth San FranciscoUSA

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