Nature and Etiological Models of Anxiety Disorders

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the nature and prevailing etiological models of anxiety disorders. Diagnostic criteria, prevalence, and risk factors of individual anxiety disorders are highlighted.

Keywords

Fatigue Depression Toll Pebble Lawson 

References

  1. Abelson, J. L., Khan, S., Lyubkin, M., & Giardino, N. (2008). Respiratory irregularity and stress hormones in panic disorder: Exploring potential linkages. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 885–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, J. L., Lavalee, K. L., Herren, C., Ruhe, K., & Schneider, S. (2010). DSM-IV criteria for childhood separation anxiety disorder: Informant, age, and sex differences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 946–952.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Andrews, G., Hobbs, M. J., Borkovec, T. D., Beesdo, K., Craske, M. G., Heimberg, R. G., et al. (2010). Generalized worry disorder: A review of DSM-IV generalized anxiety disorder and options for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 134–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Andrews, G., & Slade, T. (2002). Agoraphobia without a history of panic disorder may be part of the panic disorder syndrome. Journal of Nervous Mental Disorders, 190, 624–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Angst, J., Gamma, A., Baldwin, D. S., Ajdacic-Gross, V., & Rossler, W. (2009). The generalized anxiety spectrum: Prevalence, onset, course and outcome. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 259, 37–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Asendorpf, J. S. (1990). Development of inhibition during childhood: Evidence for situational specificity and a two-factor model. Developmental Psychology, 26, 721–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. A. (1963). Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  10. Barrett, P. M., Rapee, R. M., Dadds, M. M., & Ryan, S. M. (1996). Family enhancement of cognitive style in anxious and aggressive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24, 187–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beck, A. T. (1996). Beyond belief: A theory of modes, personality, and psychopathology. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 1–25). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
  12. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (1998). Shy children, phobic adults: The nature and treatment of social phobia. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Beidel, D. C., & Turner, S. M. (2005). Childhood anxiety disorders: A guide to research and treatment. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Bogels, S. M., Alden, L., Beidel, D. C., Clark, L. A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., et al. (2010). Social anxiety disorder: Questions and answers for the DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 168–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Borkovec, T. D., Ray, W. J., & Stober, J. (1998). Worry: A cognitive phenomenon intimately linked to affective, physiological, and interpersonal behavioral processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22, 561–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouton, M., Mineka, S., & Barlow, D. (2001). A modern learning theory perspective on the etiology of panic disorder. Psychological Review, 108, 4–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Breton, J., Bergeron, L., Valla, J., Berthiaume, C., Gaudet, N., Lambert, J., et al. (1999). Quebec Child Mental Health Survey: Prevalence of DSM-III–R mental health disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40, 375–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewin, C. R., Lanius, R. A., Novac, A., Schnyder, U., & Galea, S. (2009). Reformulating PTSD for DSM-5: Life after criterion A. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 366–373.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Briere, J., & Spinazzola, J. (2005). Phenomenology and psychological assessment of complex posttraumatic states. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 401–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown, T. A. (1997). The nature of generalized anxiety disorder and pathological worry: Current evidence and conceptual models. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 817–825.Google Scholar
  21. Bruch, M. A., Heimberg, R. G., Berger, P., & Collins, T. M. (1989). Social phobia and perceptions of early parental and personal characteristics. Anxiety Research, 2, 57–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bryant, R. A., Harvey, A. G., Guthrie, R. M., & Moulds, M. L. (2003). Acute psychophysiological arousal and posttraumatic stress disorder: A two-year prospective study. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 16, 439–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burnstein, M., & Ginsburg, G. S. (2010). The effect of parental modeling of anxious behaviors and cognitions in school-aged children: An experimental pilot study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 506–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bystritsky, A., Kerwin, L., Niv, N., Natoli, J. L., Abrahami, N., Klap, R., et al. (2010). Clinical and subthreshold panic disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 381–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Canino, G., Shrout, P. E., Rubio-Stipec, M., Bird, H. R., Bravo, M., Ramirez, R., et al. (2004). The DSM-IV rates of child and adolescent disorders in Puerto Rico: Prevalence, correlates, service use, and the effects of impairment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 85–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Clark, D. M. (1986). A cognitive approach to panic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 24, 461–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Clark, D. M., Beck, A. T., & Brown, G. (1989). Cognitive mediation in general psychiatric outpatients: A test of the content-specific hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 958–964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coelho, C. M., & Purkis, H. (2009). The origins of specific phobias: Influential theories and current perspectives. Review of General Psychology, 13, 335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Costello, E. J., Erkanli, A., Fairbank, J. A., & Angold, A. (2002). The prevalence of potentially traumatic events in childhood and adolescence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 99–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Craske, M. G., Kircanski, K., Epstein, A., Wittchen, H., Pine, D. S., Lewis-Fernandez, R., et al.; DSM V Anxiety, OC Spectrum, Posttraumatic and Dissociative Disorder Work Group (2010). Panic disorder: A review of DSM-IV panic disorder and proposals for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 93–112Google Scholar
  31. Craske, M. G., & Tsao, J. C. I. (2005). Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 9, 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Davey, G. C. L. (2002). ‘Nonspecific’ rather than ‘nonassociative’ pathways to phobias: A commentary on Poulton and Menzies. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 151–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Davis, T. E., III. (2009). PTSD, anxiety, and phobias. In J. Matson, F. Andrasik, & M. Matson (Eds.), Treating childhood psychopathology and developmental disorders (pp. 183–220). New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Davis, T. E., III, Ollendick, T. H., & Öst, L. G. (2009). Intensive treatment of specific phobias in children and adolescents. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 16, 294–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Deacon, B., Lickel, J., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2008). Medical utilization across the anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 344–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. De Rosnay, M., Cooper, P. J., Tsigaras, N., & Murray, L. (2006). Transmission of social anxiety from mother to infant: An experimental study using a social referencing paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1165–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ehring, T., & Quack, D. (2010). Emotion regulation difficulties in trauma survivors: The role of trauma type and PTSD symptom severity. Behavior Therapy, 41, 587–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Eley, T. C., & Stevenson, J. (1999). Using genetic analyses to clarify the distinction between depressive and anxious symptoms in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Elsesser, K., Sartory, G., & Tackenberg, A. (2005). Initial symptoms and reactions to trauma-related stimuli and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. Depression and Anxiety, 21, 61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., & Lynskey, M. T. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: II. Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Field, A. P., Argyris, N. G., & Knowles, K. A. (2001). Who’s afraid of the big bad wolf: A prospective paradigm to test Rachman’s indirect pathways in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 1259–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Field, A. P., & Lawson, J. (2003). Fear information and the development of fears during childhood: Effects on implicit fear responses and behavioural avoidance. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1277–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Foley, D. L., Rowe, R., Maes, H., Silberg, J., Eaves, L., & Pickles, A. (2008). The relationship between separation anxiety and impairment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 635–641.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ford, T., Goodman, R., & Meltzer, H. (2003). The British Child and Adolescent Mental Health Survey 1999: The prevalence of DSM-IV disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1203–1211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Goodwin, R. D., & Hoven, C. W. (2002). Bipolar-panic comorbidity in the general population: Prevalence and associated morbidity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 70, 27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Grabe, H. J., Ruhrmann, S., Ettelt, S., Buhtz, F., Hochrein, A., Schulze-Rauschenbach, S., et al. (2006). Familiality of obsessive-compulsive disorder in non-clinical and clinical subjects. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1986–1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gray, J. A. (1982). The neuropsychology of anxiety: An enquiry into the functions of the septo-hippocampal system. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Harvey, A. G., & Bryant, R. A. (1999). Predictors of acute stress following motor vehicle accidents. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 12, 519–525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hettema, J. M., Prescott, C. A., & Kendler, K. S. (2001). A population-based twin study of generalized anxiety disorder in men and women. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189, 413–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Jang, K. L., Livesley, W. J., & Vemon, P. A. (1996). Heritability of the big five personality dimensions and their facets: A twin study. Journal of Personality, 64, 577–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keenan, K., Feng, X., Hipwell, A., & Klostermann, S. (2009). Depression begets depression: Comparing the predictive utility of depression and anxiety symptoms to later depression. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 50, 1167–1175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992a). Generalized anxiety disorder in women: A population-based twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., Heath, A. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992b). Genetic epidemiology of phobias in women: The interrelationship of agoraphobia, social phobia, situational phobia, and simple phobia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 273–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity and comorbidity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. King, N. J., Gullone, E., & Ollendick, T. H. (1998). Etiology of childhood phobias: Current status of Rachman’s three pathways theory. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 297–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kircanski, K., Craske, M. G., Epstein, A. M., & Wittchen, H. (2009). Subtypes of panic attacks: A critical review of the empirical literature. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 878–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lang, P. J. (1968). Fear reduction and fear behavior: Problems in treating a construct. In J. M. Shlien (Ed.), Research in psychotherapy (Vol. 3, pp. 90–102). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lewinsohn, P. M., Holm-Denoma, J. M., Small, J. W., Seeley, J. R., & Joiner, T. E. (2008). Separation anxiety disorder in childhood as a risk factor for future mental illness. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 548–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of depression and other DSM-III-R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lochner, C., Hemmings, S. M. J., Kinnear, C. J., Moolman-Smook, J. C., Corfield, V. A., Knowles, J. A., et al. (2004). Gender in obsessive-compulsive disorder: Clinical and genetic findings. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 14, 105–113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lyons, D. M., Parker, K. J., Katz, M., & Schatzberg, A. F. (2009). Developmental cascades linking stress inoculation, arousal regulation, and resilience. CNS Drugs, 3, 1–6.Google Scholar
  63. Magee, W. J., Eaton, W. W., Wittchen, H. U., McGonagle, K. A., & Kessler, R. C. (1996). Agoraphobia, simple phobia, and social phobia in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 159–168.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. March, J. S. (2003). Acute stress disorder in youth: A multivariate prediction model. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 809–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Markarian, Y., Larson, M. J., Aldea, M. A., Baldwin, S. A., Good, D., Berkeljon, A., et al. (2010). Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 78–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Marks, I. (2002). Innate and learned fears are at opposite ends of a continuum of associability. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 165–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Masi, G., Mucci, M., & Millepiedi, S. (2001). Separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management. CNS Drugs, 15, 93–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. McNally, R. J. (1987). Preparedness and phobias: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 283–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mellman, T. A., David, D., Bustamante, V., Fins, A. I., & Esposito, K. (2001). Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following severe injury. Depression and Anxiety, 14, 226–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Menzies, R. G., & Clark, J. C. (1993). The etiology of childhood water phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 499–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Meuret, A. E., White, K. S., Ritz, T., Roth, W. T., Hofmann, S. G., & Brown, T. A. (2006). Panic attack symptom dimensions and their relationship to illness characteristics in panic disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 40, 520–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mineka, S., & Cook, M. (1986). Immunization against the observational conditioning of snake fear in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95, 307–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mineka, S., Davidson, M., Cook, M., & Keir, R. (1984). Observational conditioning of snake fear in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 355–372.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mineka, S., & Ohman, A. (2002a). Phobias and preparedness: The selective, automatic, and encapsulated nature of fear. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 927–937.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mineka, S., & Ohman, A. (2002b). Born to fear: Non-associative vs associative factors in the etiology of phobias. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 173–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mineka, S., & Zinbarg, R. (2006). A contemporary learning theory perspective on the etiology of anxiety disorders. The American Psychologist, 61, 10–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mosing, M. A., Gordon, S. D., Medland, S. E., Statham, D. J., Nelson, E. C., Heath, A. C., et al. (2009). Genetic and environmental influences on the co-morbidity between depression, panic disorder, agoraphobia, and social phobia: A twin study. Depression and Anxiety, 26, 1004–1011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mowrer, O. H. (1951). Two-factor learning theory: Summary and comment. Psychological Review, 58, 350–354.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Murray, L., De Rosnay, M., Pearson, J., Bergeron, C., Schofield, E., Royal-Lawson, M., et al. (2008). Intergenerational transmission of social anxiety: The role of social referencing processes in infancy. Child Development, 79, 1049–1064.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nicolini, H., Arnold, P., Nestadt, G., Lanzagorta, N., & Kennedy, J. L. (2009). Overview of genetics and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 170, 7–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nocon, A., Wittchen, H., Beesdo, K., Brückl, T., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., et al. (2008). Differential familial liability of panic disorder and agoraphobia. Depression and Anxiety, 25, 422–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. O’Donnell, M. L., Creamer, M., Bryant, R. A., Schnyder, U., & Shalev, A. (2003). Posttraumatic disorders following injury: An empirical and methodological review. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 587–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Olfson, M., Fireman, B., Weissman, M. M., Leon, A. C., Sheehan, D. V., Kathol, R. G., et al. (1997). Mental disorders and disability among patients in a primary care group practice. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1734–1740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Onur, E., Alkin, T., & Tural, U. (2007). Panic disorder subtypes: Further clinical differences. Depression and Anxiety, 24, 479–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Öst, L. G. (1987). Age of onset in different phobias. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Otto, M. W., Pollack, M. H., Sachs, G. S., O’Neil, C. A., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (1992) Alcohol dependence in panic disorder patients. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 26, 29–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pauls, D. L., Alsobrook, J. P., Goodman, W., Rasmussen, S., & Leckman, J. F. (1995) A family study of obsessive-compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 76–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Persons, J. B., Mennin, D. S., & Tucker, D. E. (2001). Common misconceptions about the nature and treatment of GAD. Psychiatric Annals, 31, 501–507.Google Scholar
  89. Pertusa, A., Frost, R. O., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2010). When hoarding is a symptom of OCD: A case series and implications for DSM-5. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 1012–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pfaltz, M. C., Michael, T., Grossman, P., Margraf, J., & Wilhelm, F. H. (2010). Instability of physical anxiety symptoms in daily life of patients with panic disorder and patients with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 792–798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Phillips, K. A., Stein, D. J., Rauch, S. L., Hollander, E., Fallon, B. A., Barsky, A., et al. (2010). Should an obsessive-compulsive spectrum grouping of disorders be included in the DSM-5? Depression and Anxiety, 27, 528–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pincus, D. B., Santucci, L. C., Ehrenreich, J. T., & Eyberg, S. M. (2008). The implementation of modified parent–child interaction therapy for youth with separation anxiety disorder. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 15, 118–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pini, S., Abelli, M., Shear, K. M., Cardini, A., Lari, L., Gesi, C., et al. (2010). Frequency and clinical correlates of adult separation anxiety in a sample of 508 outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 122, 40–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Poulton, R., & Menzies, R. G. (2002). Non-associative fear acquisition: A review of the evidence from retrospective and longitudinal research. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 537–544.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Prior, M., Smart, D., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Does shy-inhibited temperament in childhood lead to anxiety problems in adolescence? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 461–468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pynoos, R. S., Steinberg, A. M., Layne, C. M., Briggs, E. C., Ostrowski, S. A., & Fairbank, J. A. (2009). DSM-5 PTSD diagnostic criteria for children and adolescents: A developmental perspective and recommendations. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 391–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rachman, S. (1994). The overprediction of fear: A review. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 683–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rachman, S. (1998). Anxiety. East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  99. Rachman, S., Elliott, C. M., Shafran, R., & Radomsky, A. S. (2009). Separating hoarding from OCD. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 520–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rapee, R. M., Schniering, C. A., & Hudson, J. L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence: Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Rasmussen, S. A., & Tsuang, M. T. (1986). Clinical characteristics and family history in DSM-III obsessive-compulsive disorder. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 14, 317–322.Google Scholar
  102. Rector, N. A., Cassin, S. E., Richter, M. A., & Burroughs, E. (2009). Obsessive beliefs in first-degree relatives of patients with OCD: A test of the cognitive vulnerability model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Roy-Byrne, P. P., Stang, P., Wittchen, H., Ustun, B., Walters, E. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Lifetime panic-depression comorbidity in the National Comorbidity Survey. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 229–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Salkovskis, P. M., Shafran, R., Rachman, S., & Freeston, M. H. (1999). Multiple pathways to inflated responsibility beliefs in obsessional problems: Possible origins and implications for therapy and research. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37, 1055–1072.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Samuels, J., Nestadt, G., Bienvenu, O. J., Costa, P. T., Riddle, M. A., Liang, K., et al. (2000). Personality disorders and normal personality dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 457–462.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Sanderson, W. C., Rapee, R. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1989). The influence of an illusion of control on panic attacks induced via inhalation of 5.5% carbon dioxide-enriched air. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 157–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Scheeringa, M. S., Pebbles, C. D., Cook, C. A., & Zeanah, C. H. (2001). Toward establishing procedural, criterion, and discriminant validity for PTSD in early childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 52–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Seligman, M. E. P. (1971). Phobias and preparedness. Behavior Therapy, 2, 307–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Silove, D. M., Marnane, C. L., Wagner, R., Manicavasagar, V. L., & Rees, S. (2010). The prevalence and correlates of adult separation anxiety disorder in an anxiety clinic. BMC Psychiatry, 10, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Stinson, F. S., Dawson, D. A., Chou, S. P., Smith, S., Goldstein, R. B., Ruan, W. J., et al. (2007). The epidemiology of DSM-IV specific phobia in the USA: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Psychological Medicine, 37, 1047–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Suarez, L. M., Bennett, S. M., Goldstein, C. R., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). Understanding anxiety disorders from a “Triple Vulnerability” framework. In M. M. Antony & M. B. Stein (Eds.), Oxford handbook of anxiety and related disorders (pp. 153–172). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  112. Swedo, S. E., Rapoport, J. L., Leonard, H., Lenane, M., & Cheslow, D. (1989). Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children and adolescents: Clinical phenomenology of 70 consecutive cases. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 335–341.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Thapar, A., & McGuffin, P. (1997). Anxiety and depressive symptoms in childhood: A genetic study of comorbidity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 651–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Toro, J., Cervera, M., Osejo, E., & Salamero, M. (1992). Obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood and adolescence: A clinical study. The Journal of Child Psychiatry, 33, 1025–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Watson, J. B., & Rayner, R. (2000). Conditioned emotional reactions. American Psychologist, 55, 313–317. (Reprinted from Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3, 1–14, 1920).Google Scholar
  116. Weathers, F. W., & Keane, T. M. (2007). The criterion A problem revisited: Controversies and challenges in defining and measuring psychological trauma. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20, 107–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Weisberg, R. B. (2009). Overview of generalized anxiety disorder: Epidemiology, presentation, and course. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 70(Suppl 2), 4–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Wilcox, H. C., Storr, C. L., & Breslau, N. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide attempts in a community sample of urban American young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66, 305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wittchen, H., Gloster, A. T., Beesdo-Baum, K., Fava, G. A., & Craske, M. G. (2010). Agoraphobia: A review of the diagnostic classificatory position and criteria. Depression and Anxiety, 27, 113–133.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Wittchen, H., & Hoyer, J. (2001). Generalized anxiety disorder: Nature and course. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 62(Suppl 11), 15–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Woodman, C. L., Noyes, R., Black, D. W., Schlosser, S., & Yagla, S. J. (1999). A 5-year follow-up study of generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie S. Nebel-Schwalm
    • 1
  • Thompson E. DavisIII
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyIllinois Wesleyan UniversityBloomingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyLouisiana State UniversityBaton RougeUSA

Personalised recommendations