Advertisement

Catalysis in Biodiesel Synthesis: Challenges and Future Perspectives

  • Ahmad Hafiidz Mohammad Fauzi
  • Nor Aishah Saidina Amin
Chapter

Abstract

The necessity to search for fossil fuel alternative is getting more critical with the increasing fossil fuel price and also its limited supply. The use of mineral diesel for transport sector is unfeasible as it is nonrenewable and emits greenhouse gases to the atmosphere during combustion, particularly carbon dioxide which can lead to global warming phenomena. Biodiesel is a type of biofuel that can be produced using renewable resources such as biomass. It can be produced from oils and fats through transesterification process. The presence of catalyst is important to ensure that the reaction can progress at shorter time and produce high biodiesel yield. Numerous catalysts have been used to assist the transesterification process. They include homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and can be further divided into acid and base nature. The catalysis in biodiesel production is progressing at faster rate in order to find a catalyst that is more practical for larger production scale. Ionic liquids and ionic solids are among new catalysts introduced with aim to improve the efficiency of the process. This chapter focused on the benefits and drawbacks of different catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. The applications of novel processes for more sustainable and enhanced biodiesel production are also discussed.

Keywords

Biodiesel Catalyst Homogeneous Heterogeneous Novel process 

References

  1. Brito JQA, Silva CS, Almeida JS, Korn MGA, Korn M, Teixeira LSG (2012) Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of ethyl esters from soybean oil via homogeneous catalysis. Fuel Process Technol 95:33–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Canakci M, Sanli H (2008) Biodiesel production from various feedstocks and their effects on the fuel properties. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 35(5):431–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cardoso A, Augusti R, Da Silva M (2008a) Investigation on the esterification of fatty acids catalyzed by the H3PW12O40 heteropolyacid. J Am Oil Chem Soc 85(6):555–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cardoso A, Neves S, Da Silva M (2008b) Esterification of oleic acid for biodiesel production catalyzed by SnCl2: a kinetic investigation. Energies 1(2):79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chisti Y (2007) Biodiesel from microalgae. Biotechnol Adv 25(3):294–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dai Y, Li BD, Quan HD, Lü CX (2010) [Hmim]3PW12O40: a high-efficient and green catalyst for the acetalization of carbonyl compounds. Chin Chem Lett 21(6):678–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Deshmane VG, Gogate PR, Pandit AB (2008) Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate. Ind Eng Chem Res 48(17):7923–7927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Estrada-Villagrana AD, Quiroz-Sosa GB, Jiménez-Alarcón ML, Alemán-Vázquez LO, Cano-­Domínguez JL (2006) Comparison between a conventional process and reactive distillation for naphtha hydrodesulfurization. Chem Eng Process 45(12):1036–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fang D, Yang J, Jiao C (2010) Dicationic ionic liquids as environmentally benign catalysts for biodiesel synthesis. ACS Catal 1(1):42–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghiaci M, Aghabarari B, Habibollahi S, Gil A (2011) Highly efficient Brønsted acidic ionic liquid-­based catalysts for biodiesel synthesis from vegetable oils. Bioresour Technol 102(2):1200–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Guo F, Fang Z, Tian X-F, Long Y-D, Jiang L-Q (2011) One-step production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil with high-acid value in ionic liquids. Bioresour Technol 102(11):6469–6472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanh HD, Dong NT, Okitsu K, Nishimura R, Maeda Y (2009) Biodiesel production by esterification of oleic acid with short-chain alcohols under ultrasonic irradiation condition. Renew Energy 34(3):780–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He BB, Singh AP, Thompson JC (2005) Experimental optimization of a continuous-flow reactive distillation reactor for biodiesel production. Trans ASAE 48(6):2237–2243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoda N (2009) Optimization of biodiesel production from cottonseed oil by transesterification using NaOH and methanol. Energy Source Part A 32(5):434–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hu S, Wang Y, Han H (2011) Utilization of waste freshwater mussel shell as an economic catalyst for biodiesel production. Biomass Bioenergy 35(8):3627–3635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. IEA (2010) Energy technology perspectives 2010: scenarios and strategies to 2050. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. IEA (2011) Technology roadmap: biofuels for transport. OECD Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  18. Jin L, Zhang Y, Dombrowski JP, Chen C-H, Pravatas A, Xu L, Perkins C, Suib SL (2011) ZnO/La2O2CO3 layered composite: a new heterogeneous catalyst for the efficient ultra-fast microwave biofuel production. Appl Catal B 103(1–2):200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kawashima A, Matsubara K, Honda K (2008) Development of heterogeneous base catalysts for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 99(9):3439–3443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kiss AA, Dimian AC, Rothenberg G (2007) Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides. Energy Fuel 22(1):598–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kouzu M, Kasuno T, Tajika M, Sugimoto Y, Yamanaka S, Hidaka J (2008) Calcium oxide as a solid base catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and its application to biodiesel production. Fuel 87(12):2798–2806CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kumar R, Ravi Kumar G, Chandrashekar N (2011) Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 102(11):6617–6620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leng Y, Wang J, Zhu D, Ren X, Ge H, Shen L (2009) Heteropolyanion-based ionic liquids: reaction-­induced self-separation catalysts for esterification. Angew Chem Int Ed 48(1):168–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leng Y, Wang J, Zhu D, Shen L, Zhao P, Zhang M (2011a) Heteropolyanion-based ionic hybrid solid: a green bulk-type catalyst for hydroxylation of benzene with hydrogen peroxide. Chem Eng J 173(2):620–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Leng Y, Wang J, Zhu D, Zhang M, Zhao P, Long Z, Huang J (2011b) Polyoxometalate-based amino-functionalized ionic solid catalysts lead to highly efficient heterogeneous epoxidation of alkenes with H2O2. Green Chem 13(7):1636–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Leung DYC, Guo Y (2006) Transesterification of neat and used frying oil: optimization for biodiesel production. Fuel Process Technol 87(10):883–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li K-X, Chen L, Yan Z-C, Wang H-L (2010) Application of pyridinium ionic liquid as a recyclable catalyst for acid-catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha oil. Catal Lett 139(3):151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liang X, Gong G, Wu H, Yang J (2009) Highly efficient procedure for the synthesis of biodiesel from soybean oil using chloroaluminate ionic liquid as catalyst. Fuel 88(4):613–616CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu X, He H, Wang Y, Zhu S, Piao X (2008) Transesterification of soybean oil to biodiesel using CaO as a solid base catalyst. Fuel 87(2):216–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liu XH, Bai HX, Zhu DJ, Cao G (2011) Green catalyzing transesterification of soybean oil with methanol for biodiesel based on the reuse of waste river-snail shell. Adv Mater Res 148–149:794–798Google Scholar
  31. López DE, Goodwin JG Jr, Bruce DA, Furuta S (2008) Esterification and transesterification using modified-zirconia catalysts. Appl Catal A Gen 339(1):76–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lotero E, Liu Y, Lopez DE, Suwannakarn K, Bruce DA, Goodwin JG (2005) Synthesis of biodiesel via acid catalysis. Ind Eng Chem Res 44(14):5353–5363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mahamuni NN, Adewuyi YG (2009) Optimization of the synthesis of biodiesel via ultrasound-­enhanced base-catalyzed transesterification of soybean oil using a multifrequency ultrasonic reactor. Energy Fuels 23(5):2757–2766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marchetti JM, Errazu AF (2008) Esterification of free fatty acids using sulfuric acid as catalyst in the presence of triglycerides. Biomass Bioenergy 32(9):892–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mootabadi H, Salamatinia B, Bhatia S, Abdullah AZ (2010) Ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production process from palm oil using alkaline earth metal oxides as the heterogeneous catalysts. Fuel 89(8):1818–1825CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nakatani N, Takamori H, Takeda K, Sakugawa H (2009) Transesterification of soybean oil using combusted oyster shell waste as a catalyst. Bioresour Technol 100(3):1510–1513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Noshadi I, Amin NAS, Parnas RS (2012) Continuous production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a reactive distillation column catalyzed by solid heteropolyacid: optimization using response surface methodology (RSM). Fuel 94:156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Park J-Y, Kim D-K, Lee J-S (2010a) Esterification of free fatty acids using water-tolerable Amberlyst as a heterogeneous catalyst. Bioresour Technol 101(1 Supplement):S62–S65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Park Y-M, Lee JY, Chung S-H, Park IS, Lee S-Y, Kim D-K, Lee J-S, Lee K-Y (2010b) Esterification of used vegetable oils using the heterogeneous WO3/ZrO2 catalyst for production of biodiesel. Bioresour Technol 101(1 Supplement):S59–S61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Phan AN, Phan TM (2008) Biodiesel production from waste cooking oils. Fuel 87(17–18):3490–3496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Plechkova NV, Seddon KR (2008) Applications of ionic liquids in the chemical industry. Chem Soc Rev 37(1):123–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Qureshi ZS, Deshmukh KM, Bhor MD, Bhanage BM (2009) Brønsted acidic ionic liquid as an efficient and reusable catalyst for transesterification of β-ketoesters. Catal Commun 10(6):833–837CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rajkumar T, Ranga Rao G (2008a) Investigation of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid and polyoxometalate anion. J Chem Sci 120(6):587–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Rajkumar T, Ranga Rao G (2008b) Synthesis and characterization of hybrid molecular material prepared by ionic liquid and silicotungstic acid. Mater Chem Phys 112(3):853–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ranga Rao G, Rajkumar T, Varghese B (2009) Synthesis and characterization of 1-butyl 3-methyl imidazolium phosphomolybdate molecular salt. Solid State Sci 11(1):36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Sharma YC, Singh B, Upadhyay SN (2008) Advancements in development and characterization of biodiesel: a review. Fuel 87(12):2355–2373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sharma YC, Singh B, Korstad J (2010) Application of an efficient nonconventional heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from Pongamia pinnata oil. Energy Fuels 24(5): 3223–3231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Talukder MMR, Wu JC, Lau SK, Cui LC, Shimin G, Lim A (2008) Comparison of Novozym 435 and Amberlyst 15 as heterogeneous catalyst for production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate. Energy Fuels 23(1):1–4Google Scholar
  49. Taufiq-Yap YH, Lee HV, Yunus R, Juan JC (2011) Transesterification of non-edible Jatropha curcas oil to biodiesel using binary Ca–Mg mixed oxide catalyst: effect of stoichiometric composition. Chem Eng J 178:342–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Vyas AP, Verma JL, Subrahmanyam N (2010) A review on FAME production processes. Fuel 89(1):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wei Z, Xu C, Li B (2009) Application of waste eggshell as low-cost solid catalyst for biodiesel production. Bioresour Technol 100(11):2883–2885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wu Q, Chen H, Han M, Wang D, Wang J (2007) Transesterification of cottonseed oil catalyzed by Brønsted acidic ionic liquids. Ind Eng Chem Res 46(24):7955–7960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Xing H, Wang T, Zhou Z, Dai Y (2005) Novel Brønsted-acidic ionic liquids for esterifications. Ind Eng Chem Res 44(11):4147–4150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Xu L, Wang Y, Yang X, Yu X, Guo Y, Clark JH (2008) Preparation of mesoporous polyoxometalate-­tantalum pentoxide composite catalyst and its application for biodiesel production by esterification and transesterification. Green Chem 10(7):746–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Xu L, Wang Y, Yang X, Hu J, Li W, Guo Y (2009) Simultaneous esterification and transesterification of soybean oil with methanol catalyzed by mesoporous Ta2O5/SiO2-[H3PW12O40/R] (R = Me or Ph) hybrid catalysts. Green Chem 11(3):314–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Yaakob Z, Ong BH, Satheesh Kumar MN, Kamarudin SK (2009) Microwave-assisted transesterification of Jatropha and waste frying palm oil. Int J Sustain Energy 28(4):195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yan S, Kim M, Salley SO, Ng KYS (2009) Oil transesterification over calcium oxides modified with lanthanum. Appl Catal A Gen 360(2):163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zhang H, Xu F, Zhou X, Zhang G, Wang C (2007) A Brønsted acidic ionic liquid as an efficient and reusable catalyst system for esterification. Green Chem 9(11):1208–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zhang L, Xian M, He Y, Li L, Yang J, Yu S, Xu X (2009) A Brønsted acidic ionic liquid as an efficient and environmentally benign catalyst for biodiesel synthesis from free fatty acids and alcohols. Bioresour Technol 100(19):4368–4373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Zhang S, Zu Y-G, Fu Y-J, Luo M, Zhang D-Y, Efferth T (2010) Rapid microwave-assisted transesterification of yellow horn oil to biodiesel using a heteropolyacid solid catalyst. Bioresour Technol 101(3):931–936CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Zhu H-P, Yang F, Tang J, He M-Y (2003) Brønsted acidic ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate: a green catalyst and recyclable medium for esterification. Green Chem 5(1):38–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Zhu W, Huang W, Li H, Zhang M, Jiang W, Chen G, Han C (2011) Polyoxometalate-based ionic liquids as catalysts for deep desulfurization of fuels. Fuel Process Technol 92(10):1842–1848CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmad Hafiidz Mohammad Fauzi
    • 1
  • Nor Aishah Saidina Amin
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Reaction Engineering Group (CREG), Faculty of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

Personalised recommendations