Advertisement

Taurine 8 pp 111-119 | Cite as

Taurine Counteracts the Suppressive Effect of Lipopolysaccharide on Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Rats

  • Gaofeng Wu
  • Takashi Matsuwaki
  • Yoshinori Tanaka
  • Keitaro Yamanouchi
  • Jianmin Hu
  • Masugi Nishihara
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 775)

Abstract

Neurogenesis has been generally accepted to happen in the subventricular zone lining the lateral ventricular and subgranular zone (SGZ) in the hippocampus of adult mammalian brain. Recent studies have reported that inflammatory stimuli, such as injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), impair neurogenesis in the SGZ. Taurine, a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, is a major free intracellular amino acid in many tissues of mammals and having various supplementary effects on the mammalian body functions including the brain. Recently, it has been also reported that taurine levels in the brain significantly increase under stressful conditions. The present study was aimed to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of taurine on the neurogenesis in the SGZ under the condition of acute inflammatory stimuli by LPS. Adult male rats were intraperitoneally injected with taurine once a day for 39 days. Twenty-four hours before the animals were sacrificed on the last day of taurine treatment, LPS was injected simultaneously with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Immunohistochemistry for BrdU, Ki67, and Iba-1 in the brain was performed, and serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β 2 h after LPS injection were determined. The results showed that LPS significantly decreased the number of immunoreactive cells for both BrdU and Ki67 in the SGZ, while increased that for Iba-1, all of which were restored by taurine administration. Meanwhile, the serum concentrations of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly increased, which were significantly attenuated by taurine administration. These results suggest that taurine effectively maintains neurogenesis in the SGZ under the acute infectious condition by attenuating the increase of microgliosis in the hippocampus as well as proinflammatory cytokines in the peripheral circulation.

Keywords

Dentate Gyrus Newborn Neuron Subgranular Zone Taurine Level Adult Mammalian Brain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

CNS

Central nervous system

SGZ

Subgranular zone

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

BrdU

Bromodeoxyuridine

BBB

Blood–brain barrier

SVZ

Subventricular zone

DG

Dentate gyrus

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

IL-1β

Interleukin-1β

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the project of JSPS Fellowship for Researcher in JAPAN (2010 long term) to GW and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (23228004) from the JSPS to MN.

References

  1. Banks WA, Kastin AJ, Broadwell RD (1995) Passage of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier. Neuroimmunomodulation 4:241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chung DW, Yoo KY, Hwang IK, Kim DW, Chung JY, Lee CH, Choi JH, Choi SY, Youn HY, Lee IS, Won MH (2010) Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induces cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in endothelium and increases microglia in the mouse hippocampus. Cell Mol Neurobiol 30:531–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ekdahl CT, Claasen JH, Bonde S, Kokaia Z, Lindvall O (2003) Inflammation is detrimental for neurogenesis in adult brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:13632–13637PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. El Idrissi A (2008) Taurine improves learning and retention in aged mice. Neurosci Lett 436:19–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Fujioka H, Akema T (2010) Lipopolysaccharide acutely inhibits proliferation of neural precursor cells in the dentate gyrus in adult rats. Brain Res 1352:35–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gailard PJ, de Boer AB, Breimer DD (2003) Pharmacological investigations on lipopolysaccharide-induced permeability changes in the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Microvasc Res 65:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gailard PJ, Voorwinden LH, Nielsen JL, Ivanov A, Atsumi R, Engman H, Ringborn C, de Boer AG, Breimer DD (2001) Establishment and functional characterization of an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier, comprising a co-culture of brain capillary endothelial cells and astrocytes. Eur J Pharm Sci 12:215–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gross CG (2000) Neurogenesis in the adult brain: death of a dogma. Nat Rev Neurosci 1:67–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kempermann G, Gage FH (1999) New nerve cells for the adult brain. Sci Am 280:48–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim YW, Kim KH, Ahn DK, Kim HS, Kim JY, Lee DC, Park SY (2007) Time-course changes of hormones and cytokines by lipopolysaccharide and its relation with anorexia. J Physiol Sci 57:159–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kuboyama N, Sato Y, Saito T, Abiko Y (2007) Stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in rat serum by actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans LPS challenge. Med Biol 151:21–26Google Scholar
  12. Lemaire V, Lamarque S, Le Moal M, Piazza PV, Abrous DN (2006) Postnatal Stimulation of the pups counteracts prenatal stress-induced deficits in hippocampal neurogenesis. Biol Psychiatry 59:786–792PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lie DC, Song H, Colamarino SA, Ming GL, Gage FH (2004) Neurogenesis in the adult brain: new strategies for central nervous system diseases. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 44:399–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mandyam CD, Crawford EF, Eisch AJ, Rivier CL, Richardson HN (2008) Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus. Dev Neurobiol 68:575–589PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mirescu C, Gould E (2006) Stress and adult neurogenesis. Hippocampus 16:233–238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Monje ML, Toda H, Palmer TD (2003) Inflammatory blockade restores adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Science 302:1760–1765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Montanini R, Gasco P (1974) Taurine in the treatment of diffuse cerebral arteriopathies. Clinical and electroencephalographic observations and psychological tests. Clin Ter 71:427–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Ramon y Cajal S (1913) Degeneration and regeneration of the nervous system. Oxford Univ. Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  19. Shors TJ, Miesegaes G, Beylin A, Zhao M, Rydel T, Gould E (2001) Neurogenesis in the adult is involved in the formation of trace memories. Nature 410:372–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sun M, Zhao Y, Gu Y, Xu C (2012) Anti-inflammatory mechanism of taurine against ischemic stroke is related to down-regulation of PARP and NF-κB. Amino Acids 42:1735–1747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wu G, Yang J, Sun C, Luan X, Shi J, Hu J (2009) Effect of taurine on alcoholic liver disease in rats. Amino Acid 36:457–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Wu JY, Prentice H (2010) Role of taurine in the central nervous system. J Biomed Sci 17(Suppl 1):S1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wu JY, Tang XW, Schloss JV, Faiman MD (1998) Regulation of taurine biosynthesis and its ­physiological significance in the brain. Adv Exp Med Biol 442:339–345PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Xaio H, Banks WA, Niehoff ML, Moreley JE (2001) Effect of LPS on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier to insulin. Brain Res 896:36–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gaofeng Wu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Takashi Matsuwaki
    • 1
  • Yoshinori Tanaka
    • 1
  • Keitaro Yamanouchi
    • 1
  • Jianmin Hu
    • 2
  • Masugi Nishihara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary PhysiologyGraduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of TokyoTokyoJapan
  2. 2.College of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineShenyang Agricultural UniversityShenyangP.R. China

Personalised recommendations