Taurine May Not Alleviate Hyperglycemia-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Human Adipocytes
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In obesity and diabetes, adipocytes show significant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Hyperglycemia-induced ER stress has not been studied in adipocyte differentiation and adipokine expression. Taurine has been known to protect the cells against ER stress. This study examined the effect of taurine on ER stress-induced adipocyte differentiation and adipokine expression to explain the therapeutic effect of taurine on diabetes and obesity. To do this, human preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes, in the presence or absence of taurine, under ER stress conditions. Changes in adipokine expression in adipocytes stimulated with IL-1β were investigated in the presence or absence of taurine. Human preadipocytes were treated with thapsigargin (10 nM) or high glucose concentrations (100 mM) as ER stress inducers during differentiation into adipocytes. Thapsigargin inhibited the differentiation of adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, but the high glucose concentration treatment did not. Taurine 100 mM treatment did not block the inhibition of differentiation of preadipcytes into adipocytes. Furthermore, the high glucose concentration treatment inhibited the expression of adiponectin and increased the expression of leptin in human adipocytes. However, taurine treatment did not affect the expression of two adipokines. In conclusion, the therapeutic mechanism of taurine in diabetes and obesity does not appear to occur by alleviating hyperglycemia-mediated ER stress. To clarify the molecular mechanism by which taurine improves diabetic symptoms and obesity in animal models, the protective effect of taurine against hyperglycemia- or overnutrition-mediated ER stress should be further evaluated under various conditions or types of ER stress.
KeywordsEndoplasmic Reticulum Stress Unfold Protein Response Adipocyte Differentiation High Glucose Concentration Human Adipocyte
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2012-0002659).
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